International STD Research & Reviews <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>International STD Research &amp; Reviews (ISSN:&nbsp;2347-5196)</strong> aims to publish high-quality papers (<a href="/index.php/I-SRR/general-guideline-for-authors">Click here for Types of paper</a>) in all areas of ‘Sexually Transmitted Disease related research’. The journal also encourages the submission of useful reports of negative results. This is a quality controlled,&nbsp;OPEN&nbsp;peer-reviewed, open access INTERNATIONAL journal.</p> SCIENCEDOMAIN international en-US International STD Research & Reviews 2347-5196 Azole Resistance and Detection of the ERG11 Gene in Clinical Candida albicans Isolated from Pregnant Women with Vulvovaginitis Attending Federal Medical Centre, Yenagoa, Nigeria <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> <em>Candida albicans</em> is one of the most important aetiological agents causing vaginal candidiasis in pregnant women. Most women will experience at least one episode during their reproductive years. Antifungal resistance is a particular problem with Candida infections. Some types of Candida are increasingly resistant to the first-line and second-line antifungal medications.</p> <p><strong>Objective:</strong> To investigate the azole susceptibility of <em>Candida albicans</em> (<em>C. albicans</em>) from pregnant vulvovaginal candidiasis patients and to detect <em>ERG11</em> gene in these azole resistance isolates.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> Forty-one clinical isolates of <em>C</em>. <em>albicans</em> were collected. Azole susceptibility was tested <em>in vitro</em> using microdilution techniques. The <em>ERG11</em> genes of 27 isolates of <em>C. albicans</em> (All resistant to azoles) were amplified using PCR method.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Of the 67 isolates recovered, 41(61.19%) were <em>C. albicans</em>, of which 27 (65.85%) each, and 25(60.98%) were resistant to Fluconazole, Voriconazole, and Nystatin respectively. In total, <em>ERG11</em> genes were detected among 24(88.89%) of 27 <em>C. albicans</em> azole resistant isolates.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> Twenty four <em>ERG11</em> genes were detected among 27 azole resistant <em>C. albicans</em> isolates, which indicates a possible relation with the increase in resistance to azole drugs and the recurrence of vulvovaginal candidiasis.</p> Abdulrasheed B. Abdu Tolulope Alade Catherine Omotu ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-09-03 2019-09-03 1 11 10.9734/ISRR/2019/v8i230097 Community Pharmacy Based Model for HIV Care and Services: Attitudes and Perceptions of Practitioners in Jos, Nigeria <p><strong>Background: </strong>Differentiated care is an innovative multi-dimensional strategy for improving access to HIV care and treatment outcomes. However, its successful implementation depends on attitudes and perceptions of practitioners.</p> <p><strong>Objectives: </strong>This study assessed the attitudes and perception of community pharmacists on HIV differentiated care and services.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>This was a cross-sectional survey of community pharmacists in Jos, Plateau state, Nigeria. The portion of the study reported in this paper consisted of a 10 items Likert questions to assess attitudes and perceptions of community pharmacists on differentiated HIV care and services. The Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 20 was used to manage data. The reliability of the instrument was calculated using Cronbach’s alpha. Descriptive statistics were presented as tables and figures.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Seventy-three 73 community pharmacists completed our questionnaire out of 110 distributed, giving a response rate of 66.4%. Mean age of respondents was 37.7<u>+</u>7.8 years. Cronbach’s alpha for internal consistency of the perception scale was 0.9 indicating good reliability of the instrument. Overall, respondents had a positive perception regarding suitability and benefits of differentiated HIV care and services in community pharmacies. Highest agreement was to the perception that differentiated care would encourage collaboration between community pharmacies and the rest of the health system.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Willingness and positive perceptions of community pharmacists about the suitability and benefits of providing HIV differentiated care and services were identified.&nbsp;</p> M. L. P. Dapar B. N. Joseph P. A. Damun C. R. Okunlola E. Ahmadu B. M. Aya P. N. Alphonsus ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-09-26 2019-09-26 1 10 10.9734/ISRR/2019/v8i230098 Assessment of Health Facilities Delivering HIV Services among Patients in Bonny, South-South Nigeria <p><strong>Background</strong><strong>:</strong> The growing spread of HIV and AIDS among the people of Bonny Kingdom and capacity of medical facilities and service providers to respond to the dire situation have long posed public health concern of immeasurable proportion right from the inception of the Ibani-Se HIV/AIDS Baseline Survey Initiative in 2006 to the implementation of a three-year (2008-2011) intervention programme and thereafter. The impact of the provision of ART and other medical services related to HIV on the quality of care and satisfaction of all, HIV and non-HIV patients is unknown, and any available evidence is limited and arguable. The survey sought to know the number of health facility in the locality, the services they offer and most importantly the number of qualified personnel in such health facilities.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> A standardized questionnaire was designed for facility assessment to measure the capacity of health facilities to undertake VCT and ART services. The survey was conducted in sixteen (16) health facilities; fourteen (14) public and two (2) private health facilities located within Bonny town and in the creeks. In each facility, the manager and health providers were surveyed, with at least one provider selected from the HIV/AIDS department; 10 randomly selected persons in the Outpatients Department/Unit including 5 from the HIV/AIDS services were interviewed. A standard health facility assessment checklist was developed to measure the quality of care, capacity of providers, developmental and training needs. Others included conformity to standard of practice and quality of medical equipment. Data was entered with Census and Survey Processing System (CSPro) and exported to SPSS or Stata for analysis.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Of the sixteen health facilities, only seven provided both VCT and PMTCT services (Abalamabia health centre, Comprehensive health centre, NLNG RA Hospital, General Hospital, Finima health centre, Good shepherd Health medical lab and Chanel clinic) while one (Island Medical lab) provided VCT services; the others provided neither of the two services. Although, there are fairly adequate number and distribution of health facilities in the LGA, utilization of the general health services was found to have improved when compared to the previous survey. However, lack of structured unit for the provision of VCT and PMTCT services, specifically trained and designated counselors; and poorly motivated public healthcare providers have given rise to concerns about poor access of rural dwellers and inequitable distribution of the few available services, particularly to people most in need.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Implications of this survey were highlighted for a more effective HIV prevention and control programme for wide coverage.&nbsp;</p> A. J. Onoja O. N. Akoma ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-11-04 2019-11-04 1 11 10.9734/ISRR/2019/v8i230099 Effects of Highly Active Antiretroviral Treatment on Complete Blood Count Parameters <p><strong>Aim:</strong> This study assesses the effects of HAART on complete blood count parameters among HIV infected participants.</p> <p><strong>Study Design</strong><strong>:</strong> Case control study.</p> <p><strong>Place and Methods:</strong> This study was conducted in Tamale, Ghana from August, 2016 to December, 2017.</p> <p><strong>Methodology</strong><strong>:</strong> A total of 300 HIV infected participants with ages ranging from 19–79 years, administered with HAART for at least 6 months were recruited. Pre-HAART administration (baseline) demographic and clinical information, with initial full blood count results were retrieved from the medical records of the participants. Post HAART administration blood sample (5mLs) was taken from each participant into an EDTA vacutainer tube and complete blood count (CBC) performed using URIT 5250 haematology analyser. Participants transfused with blood over the last 4 months were excluded from the study.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The study recorded significant decreases in WBC and Neutrophil (%) post HAART administration. Lymphocyte (%), Haemoglobin, Haematocrit, MCV, MCHC, RDW-SD were all significantly higher post HAART administration. Total Platelets count, MPV, PDW-SD, PCT and P-LCR were significantly lower post-HAART administration. A comparison of the effects of EFV and NVP administered with AZT/3TC backbone yielded the following results. The NVP group recorded a significantly higher HCT compared with the EFV group (p-0.0073). A significantly higher mean PCT, MPV, P-LCR, PLCC, PDW-SD were recorded in the EFV group compared to the NVP group respectively.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>The administration of HAART is associated with significant improvements in erythroid and lymphoid lineages, reduce anaemia, improves immunity and general patient well-being. NVP improve erythroid cell indices while EFV ameliorate platelet indices. HAART regimen should be chosen based on the pre-HAART laboratory tests conducted on the individual.</p> Simon Bannison Bani William K. B. A. Owiredu Christian Obirikorang Samuel A. Sakyi Kwabena O. Danquah Lawrence Quaye Yussif Adams Peter Paul M. Dapare Moses Banyeh Barnabas B. N. Gandau ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-11-06 2019-11-06 1 12 10.9734/ISRR/2019/v8i230100 Comparative Study on the Electrolyte Levels of HIV/AIDS Patients on High Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) in Owerri Metropolis, South Eastern Nigeria <p>This study investigated and compared the electrolyte levels of HIV/AIDS patients on high active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Thirty patients (13 males and 17 females) were recruited for this study. Patients included in this study were HIV positive and on high active anti-retroviral treatment for at least three months. They were not on any mind altering medications and were mentally sound and are within the age range of 10 years to 59 years. Remarkable differences were observed in the concentrations of the electrolytes (Cl<sup>-</sup>, Na<sup>+</sup>, K<sup>+</sup>, HCO<sub>3</sub><sup>-</sup>) when compared with their normal ranges. Decreased levels (mmol/L) of serum Cl<sup>-</sup> (3.90±0.54 ) and Na (31.70±0.10) were observed. Between the male and female patients, K<sup>+</sup> level (mmo/L) (3.70±0.54 and 4.0±0.54 respectively) was observed to be within the normal value of 3.5 – 5.0 mmo/L. Na<sup>+</sup> concentration (mmol/L) was observed to be decreased in both male and females with the values of 130.80 ±6.40 and 131.4±6.50 respectively. The Cl<sup>-</sup> concentration (mmol/L) was observed to be increased in females (98.40±7.60) and decreased in males (97.20±8.90) when compared with the normal range (98.00-105.00 mmol/L). The male patients showed an observed significant increase in the concentration (mmol/L) of their HCO<sub>3</sub><sup>-</sup> (38.20±15.70) than the females (25.10±2.60) when compared with the normal value of 24.00-30.00 mmol/L. The concentration (mmol/L) of Na<sup>+</sup> of all the ages (10-59years) was observed to be decreased when compared with the normal range (135.00- 150.00 mmol/L) while K<sup>+</sup> for all the ages was observed to fall within the normal range. Only the age range of 30 -39years had an increased level of Cl<sup>-</sup> (145.90±48.10) while the other age ranges were decreased. The concentration (mmol/L) of HCO<sub>3</sub><sup>-</sup> of all the age ranges were observed to be within the normal range except for the age range of 20-29years which was observed to show a decreased concentration (mmol/L) of 22.30±4.00 when compared with the normal range of 24.00-30.00 mmol/L. Findings from this study has led to the recommendation that strict monitoring of the serum electrolytes in HIV/AIDS patients on HAART is important as early detection and treatment of these abnormalities will enhance the quality of life of patients.</p> K. T. Nwauche E. N. Agomuo F. C. Anacletus G. U. Nwosu ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-11-18 2019-11-18 1 5 10.9734/ISRR/2019/v8i230101