International STD Research & Reviews http://journali-srr.com/index.php/I-SRR <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>International STD Research &amp; Reviews (ISSN:&nbsp;2347-5196)</strong> aims to publish high-quality papers (<a href="/index.php/I-SRR/general-guideline-for-authors">Click here for Types of paper</a>) in all areas of ‘Sexually Transmitted Disease related research’. The journal also encourages the submission of useful reports of negative results. This is a quality controlled,&nbsp;OPEN&nbsp;peer-reviewed, open access INTERNATIONAL journal.</p> SCIENCEDOMAIN international en-US International STD Research & Reviews 2347-5196 Seroprevalence of Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 and Associated Risk Factors among Undergraduate Female Students of Babcock University, Nigeria http://journali-srr.com/index.php/I-SRR/article/view/30103 <p><strong>Background: </strong>Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) causes genital herpes, a chronic viral infection that is sexually transmitted and often results in genital ulcer disease (GUD) worldwide.</p> <p><strong>Aim:</strong> The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) IgG and IgM antibodies and the associated risk factors among undergraduate female students of Babcock University.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> After ethical approval was obtained, serum samples of 150 consenting female participants (16-35 years) were collected randomly and screened using NADAL<sup>R</sup> HSV-2 IgG/IgM Rapid Antibody Test Cassette (Bulgarian Company for Biotechnology, Sofia, Bulgaria). The demographic and clinical information of the participants were also collected using a structured questionnaire. The results were statistically analyzed using the SPSS version 18.0.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The outcome of the study shows that out of the 150 participants screened, 5 (3.3%) were positive for HSV-2 IgG antibody, 4 (2.7%) were positive for HSV-2 IgM; while 2 (1.3%) were positive for both HSV-2 IgG and IgM antibodies. There were no significant differences (P&gt;0.05) in the seropositivity for HSV-2 IgG and IgM antibodies among the study participants on the basis of age distribution. With regards to clinical indication for genital herpes in relation to seropositivity of HSV-2 IgG and IgM antibodies among the study participants, none of the 7 (4.6%) who indicated vaginal itching was seropositive for either HSV-2 IgG or HSV-2 IgM or both. On the other hand, genital lesions were recorded in 0.7% HSV-2 IgG seropositive, 1.3% HSV-2 IgM seropositive and 0.7% HSV-2 both IgG and IgM seropositive. Genital ulcer was recorded among two participants who were either seropositive for HSV-2 IgG (0.7%) or HSV-2 IgM (0.7%). Only one (0.7%) participant indicated inguinal lymphadenopathy, however, the person was HSV-2 IgG/IgM seronegative. Identifiable risk factor significantly (P&lt;0.05) associated with HSV-2 infection include: history of sexually transmitted infections, HIV positive status, and change of sex partners recently.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The outcome of this study shows that HSV-2 infection exists among undergraduate female students of Babcock University, Nigeria and therefore appropriate public health measures must be taken to halt the cycle of infection within the University community. Early detection of genital herpes and prompt treatment will help prevent subsequent complications such as genital ulcer disease among young female adults.</p> Seyi Samson Enitan John Cletus Ihongbe John Okeleke Ochei Adeolu Sunday Oluremi Grace Eleojo Itodo Stanley Osahon Usiobeigbe Wuraola Ajisola Fagboyegun ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-01-23 2020-01-23 1 15 10.9734/ISRR/2020/v9i130103 Stigmatization of People Living with HIV/AIDS in Ndokwa West Local Government Area of Delta State, Nigeria http://journali-srr.com/index.php/I-SRR/article/view/30104 <p><strong>Background: </strong>HIV/AIDS related stigmatization has been reported to be traced to several factors. Little or no knowledge on the illness, misapprehensions, as well as chauvinism against sufferers, to mention just a few.</p> <p><strong>Aim: </strong>In this study, the stigmatization of people living with HIV/AIDS in Ndokwa West Local Government Area (NWLGA) of Delta State, Nigeria, was investigated.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>A total of 300 individuals comprising of, or related to HIV/AIDS sufferers were ethically recruited from the ten (10) communities in NWLGA using a well-structured and validated questionnaire. The data obtained from their responses were carefully analyzed and expressed in simple percentage.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The results showed that about 61 (20.5%) subjects were individuals who resided in urban community and 237 (79.5%) of them in the rural settings. The results on the stigmatization against HIV/AIDS patients due to prejudice revealed that 100 (33.6%) of the respondents strongly disagreed that HIV/AIDS sufferers in the community should be disliked, while 128 (43%) of them disagree with about 50 (16.8%) agreeing and 20 (6.7%) of the respondents strongly agreeing. Furthermore, stigmatization attributable to stereotyping showed that 68 (22.8%) of the respondents strongly disagreed to that everyone infected with HIV/AIDS have high level of sexual promiscuity; were as, about 114 (38.3%) disagreed to that notion with 57 (19.1%) agreeing and 59 (19.8%) strongly agreeing to it. Moreover, HIV/AIDS stigmatization due to discrimination revealed that 66 (22.1%) of the respondents strongly disagreed on never hiring an HIV/AIDS sufferer as a worker. About 98 (32.9%) disagreed on this notion, while 106 (35.6%) of the respondents agreed and 74 (24.8%) strongly disagreeing. Respondents further added that PLWHA should not be employed in any institution or organization and that they should never rent accommodation to them.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Based on the results, stigmatization level of PLWHA was society and awareness dependent.</p> <p><strong>Recommendations: </strong>To cope with the associated menace of HIV/AIDS stigmatization, it is recommended that society be encouraged to evolve strategies, programs and governmental policies, geared towards enlightening and sensitizing the public on the non-transmittability of HIV/AIDS through contact with sufferers as erroneously believed.</p> Ossaiga Patricia Uzorma Adjene Josiah Obaghwarhievwo Chime Helen Ego Odigie Mike Osagie ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-01-28 2020-01-28 16 29 10.9734/ISRR/2020/v9i130104 Safe Male Circumcision for HIV Prevention among Adolescents with Deafness in Uganda: Awareness, Prevalence and Implications for Policy and Programming http://journali-srr.com/index.php/I-SRR/article/view/30105 <p><strong>Background: </strong>Safe Male Circumcision (SMC)<a href="#_ftn1" name="_ftnref1"><sup>[1]</sup></a> has been widely recommended by WHO as part of a comprehensive HIV prevention strategy. However, literature pertaining to SMC amongst adolescents with a disability, and the deaf community in particular, is almost non-existent. This study sought to establish SMC prevalence, knowledge, attitude and post circumcision behaviour among adolescents with deafness in Uganda.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> The study was cross-sectional, used a mixed-methods approach and recruited 447 participants. 363 questionnaires were administered to adolescents of age 15 - 24 years (192 males and 171 females) from three study sites. We assessed socio-demographic variables, circumcision status, post circumcision behaviour, attitude and knowledge levels towards SMC. Qualitative data was also collected from 84 participants (m=46, f=38) using focus group discussions and key informant interviews. Quantitative data were analysed using Stata software while qualitative was thematically analysed.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> A total of 60.9% male adolescents with deafness self-reported to be circumcised. Both male and female participants reported SMC information to be highly inaccessible (84%). Only 27.8% study participants knew about the partial protective effect of SMC against HIV, 51.8% were uncertain, while 26% thought that SMC provided full protection. Both male and female respondents had a positive attitude towards SMC (68.3%) and females were more knowledgeable (50.3%) about the partial preventive effect of SMC against HIV transmission and timeframe for the resumption of sexual activity compared to males (30.2%). Linkages were noted between SMC, social networks and key sociodemographic characteristics like ethnicity, religion and education level.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Despite a 60.9% prevalence and general positive attitude towards SMC, study findings showed limited service access and substantial knowledge gaps in SMC efficacy, also related to high-risk behaviour after circumcision. This can largely be explained by limited targeting by HIV prevention programmes among this (deaf) category of adolescents, related barriers associated with vulnerability arising from their disability (deafness) and developmental stage (adolescence). Key actors in HIV prevention efforts should demonstrate cognizance of heightened risk among vulnerable adolescent categories through more inclusive interventions to address prevailing knowledge and service gaps.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><a href="#_ftnref1" name="_ftn1"><em><strong>[1]</strong></em></a><em> This study was conducted between 2015-2016 when the commonly used term was Safe Male Circumcision (SMC) and not Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision (VMMC) as its popularly being packaged now. This manuscript has stuck to the originally used SMC acronym.</em></p> Gloria K. Seruwagi Julius Paul Achibu ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-03-30 2020-03-30 30 45 10.9734/ISRR/2020/v9i130105