Prevalence of Trichomonas vaginalis Infection among Women of Reproductive Age in Anambra State, South Eastern, Nigeria
Issue: 2023 - Volume 12 [Issue 2]
J. C. Ozougwu *
Department of Biological Sciences, Rhema University Nigeria, Aba, Abia State, Nigeria.
C. A. Imakwu
Department of Parasitology and Entomology, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Anambra State, Nigeria.
Department of Microbiology, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike, Abia State, Nigeria.
O. A. Okeke
Department of Zoology, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Anambra State, Nigeria.
*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Aim: This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of Trichomonas vaginalis infection among women of reproductive age in some selected hospitals in Awka, Anambra State, Nigeria.
Methods: This study, conducted from October to December 2021, involved 200 women aged 20 years and above as participants. Prior to specimen collection, informed consent was obtained from each woman by qualified medical personnel. High vaginal swab sticks, labeled and sterile, were used to meticulously and aseptically collect specimens from the high vaginal area. A few drops of normal saline were added to each swab stick, and within 30 minutes of collection, a wet mount examination was performed to ensure optimal results. For the wet preparation of vaginal discharge, a drop from the sample was applied to a clean glass slide with a cover slip, avoiding the trapping of air bubbles. The wet smear was then examined under a microscope using a low-power objective (x10) followed by a high-power objective (x40) to detect motile T. vaginalis. The vaginal secretion was characterized by the presence of epithelial cells, white blood cells, and red blood cells. The T. vaginalis trophozoite was identified based on its oval shape, flagellation, and distinct jerky movement.
Results: The study area had an overall prevalence rate of 11.0% for T. vaginalis infection. Among the selected hospitals, COOUTH had the highest prevalence at 13.24%, while Rock Foundation Hospital had the lowest at 6.67%. Prevalence varied across age groups, with the highest rate of 16.42% found in the 30-39 years age group, and the lowest rate of 5.0% in the 20-29 years age group. Divorced women had the highest prevalence at 60.0%, while singles had the lowest at 4.7% among the marital groups. Among different occupations, traders had the highest prevalence at 12.24%, whereas students and civil servants had the lowest rates at 4.0% and 7.72%, respectively. T. vaginalis infection was only observed in non-pregnant women, with a prevalence rate of 13.3%.
Conclusion: T. vaginalis infection is prevalent among sexually active women of reproductive age in the study area. The findings highlight the importance of practicing good personal hygiene and being faithful to a single sexual partner. It is recommended to raise public awareness regarding the prevention and control of T. vaginalis in order to reduce its prevalence among women in the study area.
Keywords: Prevalence, Trichomonas vaginalis, infection, women, reproductive age, Anambra
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