Haematological Perturbations in Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Positive Patients Receiving Antiretroviral Therapy in Edo State, Nigeria

K. Chikezie

Department of Haematology, Federal Medical Centre, Umuahia, Abia State, Nigeria.

C. L. Uche

Department of Haematology, Abia State University, Uturu, Nigeria.

N. C. Ekeleme

Department of Community Medicine, Abia State University Teaching Hospital, Aba, Nigeria.

U. P. Okite

Department of Haematology and Blood Transfusion, University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

I. O. Abali

Department of Surgery, Abia State University, Uturu, Nigeria.

P. Jibiro

Department of Haematology and Blood Transfusion, University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

A. I. Airaodion *

Department of Biochemistry, Federal University of Technology, Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


Abstract

Aim: This study sought to investigate the haematological perturbations in HIV-positive patients undergoing antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Edo State, Nigeria.

Methodology: This cross-sectional case-controlled study was conducted at the HIV clinic of the University of Benin Teaching Hospital. The research enrolled 150 HIV-positive patients and an equal number of sex and age-matched HIV-negative control subjects. Inclusion criteria encompassed individuals aged 18 years and older, confirmed HIV-positive, and receiving ART for at least six months. Exclusion criteria excluded those with sickle cell disorder, recent transfusions, or ongoing sepsis/malaria. Data collection involved self-administered questionnaires, HIV diagnosis via WHO-approved Nigerian National testing algorithms, and comprehensive haematological assessments. The obtained data were analysed using SPSS software, employing descriptive statistics and t-tests with a significance level of 0.05.

Results: Results revealed significant differences in demographic variables, duration of HIV infection, smoking history, and alcohol consumption between HIV-positive patients and control subjects. Furthermore, CD4+ T lymphocyte counts showed substantial variations, indicating immunological differences. Haematological parameters such as haemoglobin levels, packed cell volume, white blood cell, platelet counts, and erythrocyte sedimentation rate exhibited statistically significant differences between the two groups. Additionally, a sub-analysis of HIV-positive patients based on CD4+ T lymphocyte counts highlighted specific haematological changes associated with varying immunological statuses.

Conclusion: The findings underscore the impact of HIV and ART on haematological parameters, emphasizing the need for comprehensive monitoring and management strategies. This research contributes valuable insights into the context of HIV management in Nigeria, aiding healthcare professionals in optimizing patient care.

Keywords: Antiretroviral therapy, CD4 T lymphocyte counts, haematological perturbations, human immunodeficiency virus


How to Cite

Chikezie , K., Uche , C. L., Ekeleme, N. C., Okite, U. P., Abali , I. O., Jibiro, P., & Airaodion, A. I. (2024). Haematological Perturbations in Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Positive Patients Receiving Antiretroviral Therapy in Edo State, Nigeria. International STD Research & Reviews, 13(1), 21–31. https://doi.org/10.9734/ISRR/2024/v13i1168

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