Knowledge, Attitude and Usage of Female Oral Contraceptive Pills among Female Hawkers in the Central Business District, Kumasi, Ghana

Priscilla Arthur-Norman *

Rev. Walker Mission Hospital, Kumasi, Ghana and Department of Nursing, University of Ghana, Accra, Ghana.

Desmond Asamoah Bruce Otu

Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana.

Frederick William Akuffo Owusu

Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana.

Annabella Agyemang Aboagye

Department of Nursing, Royal Ann College of Health, Kumasi, Ghana.

Rahel Adutwiwah Aboagye

Department of Nursing, Royal Ann College of Health, Kumasi, Ghana and Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Royal Ann College of Health, Kumasi, Ghana.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


Background: The use of oral contraceptive pills (OCPs) can prevent pregnancy and improve menstrual health. Their effectiveness, ease of use, and reversibility make them a preferred choice. Accessible birth control options for all individuals, regardless of age or finances, is crucial. Understanding cultural attitudes and usage patterns of contraceptives is vital for effective reproductive health care, including emergency contraception options.

Aims: This study evaluated the awareness, perceptions, and usage of oral contraceptives among women (female hawkers) in the central business district of the Kumasi Metropolis.

Study Design: Cross-sectional study.

Place and Duration of Study: Central Business District (CBD) of Kumasi Metropolis encompassing the following areas: Adum Shopping Centre, Kejetia lorry station and Central market between the periods of 15th December 2023 and 12th April 2024.

Methodology: This study employed a descriptive cross-sectional design to evaluate knowledge, attitude and the use of the common female oral contraceptive pills among female street hawkers in Kumasi’s CBD. A semi-structured face-to-face interview technique was utilized. Data was analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20 and Microsoft Excel software (2016).

Results: The study surveyed 114 participants, with 91.67% below 40 years of age. Most were single (66%), and 30% were married. Over half (54.7%) had used oral contraceptives, while 41.3% had not. Among users, 79% followed the instructions for use as directed by a healthcare professional, but 21% did not. A third (33.3%) reported contraceptive failure, whereas two-thirds (66.7%) did not. A majority (85.2%) believed in a link between contraceptive use and infertility. Usage time of OCP varied as 28.8% used before, 5% during, and 65% after intercourse.

Conclusion: Majority of the respondents were found not to choose oral contraception as their means of contraception and those who chose it had limited knowledge about its usage and thus influenced compliance and adherence greatly.

Keywords: Contraception, female hawkers, unplanned births, population fertility, family planning

How to Cite

Arthur-Norman, Priscilla, Desmond Asamoah Bruce Otu, Frederick William Akuffo Owusu, Annabella Agyemang Aboagye, and Rahel Adutwiwah Aboagye. 2024. “Knowledge, Attitude and Usage of Female Oral Contraceptive Pills Among Female Hawkers in the Central Business District, Kumasi, Ghana”. International STD Research & Reviews 13 (1):71-80.


Download data is not yet available.


UNFPA. Nearly half of all pregnancies are unintended—a global crisis, says new UNFPA report; 2022. [cited 2024 May 17]. Available:

WHO. Emergency contraception; 2019. [cited 2024 May 17]. Available:

Nsubuga H, Sekandi JN, Sempeera H, Makumbi FE. Contraceptive use, knowledge, attitude, perceptions and sexual behavior among female University students in Uganda: A cross-sectional survey. BMC Womens Health. 2016;16(1):1–11. Available:

Ameyaw KE, Budu E, Sambah F, Baatiema L, Appiah F, Id A aziz S, et al. Prevalence and determinants of unintended pregnancy in sub-saharan Africa: A multi-country analysis of demographic and health surveys. PLoS One. 2019;14(8):1–16.

Rossen LM, Hamilton BE, Abma JC, Gregory ECW, Beresovsky V, Resendez AV, et al. Updated methodology to estimate overall and unintended pregnancy rates in the United States: Data evaluation and methods research. Vol. 2, Vital and Health Statistics, Series 2: Data Evaluation and Methods Research. 2023;1–29.

Ayalew HG, Liyew AM, Tessema ZT, Worku MG, Tesema GA, Alamneh TS, et al. Prevalence and factors associated with unintended pregnancy among adolescent girls and young women in sub-Saharan Africa, a multilevel analysis. BMC Womens Health. 2022;22(1):1–9. Available:

Mudiyanselage SB, Dona SWA, Angeles MR, Majmudar I, Marembo M, Tan EJ, et al. The impact of maternal health on child’s health outcomes during the first five years of child’s life in countries with health systems similar to Australia: A systematic review. PLoS One. 2024;19(3 March):1–19. Available:

Klima CS. Unintended pregnancy consequences and solutions for a worldwide problem. J Nurse Midwifery. 1998;43(6):483–91.

Stevens GA, Finucane MM, Paciorek CJ. Levels and trends in low height-for-age. Dis Control Priorities, Third Ed (Volume 2) Reprod Matern Newborn, Child Heal. 2016;85–93.

Yalew AZ, Olayemi OO, Yalew AW. Reasons and prevention strategies of unintended pregnancy in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: A phenomenological qualitative study. BMJ Open. 2023;13(7):1–9.

Upadhyay RK. Plant origin contraceptives: Phytochemistry, mechanism of action, and side effects. Int J Green Pharm. 2024;18(1).

Pradhan DK, Mishra MR, Mishra A, Panda AK, Behera RK, Jha S, et al. A comprehensive review of plants used as contraceptives. Int J Pharm Sci Res. 2013;4(1):148–55. Available: Vol. 4, Issue 1, January 2013, IJPSR, RE 799, Paper15.pdf%5Cn

Bongaarts J. Trends in fertility and fertility preferences in sub-Saharan Africa: The roles of education and family planning programs. Genus. 2020;76(1).

UNFPA. UNFPA strategy for family planning, 2022-2030: Expanding choices – Ensuring rights in a diverse and changing world. Laser Focus World. 2022;39(11):60.

Kanwetuu DVP, Worae J, Acheampong GB. Coping with the challenges of head porterage in Ghana: The case of female head porters (kayayei) in Kumasi. J Soc Thought. 2023;7(1). Available:

Lambongang JM. Investigating challenges of mobile money usage in the central business district of the kumasi metropolitan assembly, Adum-Ghana. Texila Int J Manag. 2023;9(1):42–57.

Parbhoo-Ebrahim N, Fourie I. Pathways to research participant recruitment in a challenging information behaviour context: South African cold case investigators as exemplar. In: Pathways to Research; 2020.

Cameron ST, Glasier A, McDaid L, Radley A, Baraitser P, Stephenson J, et al. Use of effective contraception following provision of the progestogen-only pill for women presenting to community pharmacies for emergency contraception (Bridge-It): A pragmatic cluster-randomised crossover trial. Lancet. 2020;396(10262):1585–94. Available:

Yeboah DS, Afranie M, Id A, Kampitib GB. Factors influencing the use of emergency contraceptives among reproductive age women in the Kwadaso Municipality, Ghana. 2022;(Ci):1–17. Available:

Kgosiemang B. Emergency contraceptive knowledge, attitudes and practices among female students at the University of Botswana: A descriptive survey. 2011;1–6.

Mishore KM, Woldemariam AD, Huluka SA. Emergency Contraceptives: Knowledge and Practice towards Its Use among Ethiopian Female College Graduating Students. 2019;2019:14–6.

Woldemichael D, Agero G, Jima A, Woldemichael B. Postabortion family planning utilization and associated factors among women seeking abortion services : A cross-sectional study Dereje Woldemichael ,Gebi Agero , Aman Jima and Bedasa Woldemichael Abstract Ethiopia is a country which suffers with one of t. Can J Fam Youth. 2023;15(3):157–71.

Tessema BM, Bayu H. Knowledge, attitude and practice on emergency contraception and associated factors among female students of debre-markos university, debre-markos town, East Gojam Zone, North West Ethiopia, 2013. 2015;15(1).

Mohammed S, Abdulai A malik, Iddrisu OA. Pre-service knowledge, perception, and use of emergency contraception among future healthcare providers in northern Ghana. 2019;9:1–7.

Solanke BL. Factors influencing contraceptive use and non-use among women of advanced reproductive age in Nigeria. J Heal Popul Nutr. 2017;1–14. Available:

Relwani N, Saoji A, Kasturwar NB, Nayse J, Junaid M, Dhatrak P. Emergency contraception: Exploring the knowledge, attitude and practices of engineering college girls in Nagpur district. 2012;3(1):3–8.

Sibanda E, Chb MB, Med DF, Obst D, Sa F, Titus MJ, et al. Knowledge, attitudes and practices of health professionals in public health institutions on emergency contraception in Pietermaritzburg , KwaZulu-Natal Province , South Africa. 2017;23(1):7–11.

Gosavi A, Wong H, Singh K. Knowledge and factors determining choice of contraception among Singaporean women. 2016;57(11):610–5.

Ugwuewo CS, Sopuru CS. Understanding birth control in the context of genesis 38 : 8-10. Glob Sci Acad Res J Multidiscip Stud. 2023;2(4):06–12.

Kasso T, Abam DS. A Qualitative analysis of contraceptive use and barriers to uptake among antenatal clinic attendees at a tertiary hospital in Port Harcourt, Southern Nigeria. Asian Res. J. Gynaecol. Obst. 2023 Dec. 16 [cited 2024 May 22];6(1):313-22. Available:

Hameed S, Ul Haq N, Haque N, Nasim A, Riaz S, Tahir M, Saood M, Yasmin R, Samsoor Zarak M. Knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP) regarding family planning services among married women of Quetta Pakistan. Int. J. Res. Rep. Gynaecol. 2019 Mar. 30 [cited 2024 May 22];2(1):1-12. Available:

Pazol K, Zapata LB, Tregear SJ, Mautone-Smith N, Gavin LE. Impact of contraceptive education on contraceptive knowledge and decision making: A systematic review. American Journal of Preventive Medicine. 2015 Aug 1;49(2):S46-56.