Residual Risk of HIV in African Transfusional Setting: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
International STD Research & Reviews,
Context: The residual risk of HIV transmission is still a real problem into the transfusional settings of limited resources countries. Blood banks of African countries confront the risk of transmitting HIV to recipients. The objective of this study is to estimate the residual risk of HIV in African transfusion settings and to compare this residual risk with that of other countries in the South (developping countries).
Methods: This study resulted of a systematic review with meta-analysis of data from several comprehensive studies carried out between 2011 and 2017 whose purpose was focused on the residual risk of HIV transmission through blood transfusion. The studies on the residual risk were systematically searched in the different databases (PubMed, Medline and Google Scholar). The eligibility criteria were based on published studies which had blood donors as participants, looking at the residual risk of HIV in developing countries and the technique was based on the search for antibodies-P24 Antigen of the HIV or on nucleic acid (RNA) testing. Studies carried out before 2011 and after 2017 were excluded. Studies in rich countries were also excluded. The Cochrane tool was used to assess the risk of bias.
Results: A total of 327,278 seronegative donors (for 12 eligible studies) were admitted for this study, i.e. 75.5% of men and 24.5% of women. The median age of all donors was 30.4 years. For studies carried out in the Africa zone (Burkina Faso, Ivory Coast, Nigeria, Democratic Republic of Congo, Tanzania and Zimbabwe), 327,278 donors were initially seronegative, of which 626 were found to be positive. Indeed, out of 742 incident cases in this study from African countries and other countries of the South, 84.4% of positive donors came from African studies and 15.6% of positive donors came from other countries of the South in this study. The residual risk (RR) of HIV in Africa has been estimated at 13 per 1,000,000 donations, with an incidence rate (IR) of 21.5 per 100,000 person-years. And in the other countries of the South (Brazil, Croatia, India, Iran, Malaysia and Pakistan), the RR of HIV has been estimated at 0.6 per 1,000,000 donations, or an incidence rate of 1.1 per 100,000 person-years.
Conclusion: The residual risk of HIV in the transfusion environment is still high and still persists in blood banks in southern countries in general and in Africa in particular.
- blood transfusion
- residual risk
How to Cite
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