International STD Research & Reviews <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>International STD Research &amp; Reviews (ISSN:&nbsp;2347-5196)</strong>&nbsp;aims to publish high-quality papers (<a href="/index.php/I-SRR/general-guideline-for-authors">Click here for Types of paper</a>) in all areas of ‘Sexually Transmitted Disease related research’. By not excluding papers based on novelty, this journal facilitates the research and wishes to publish papers as long as they are technically correct and scientifically motivated. The journal also encourages the submission of useful reports of negative results. This is a quality controlled, OPEN peer-reviewed, open-access INTERNATIONAL journal.</p> SCIENCEDOMAIN international en-US International STD Research & Reviews 2347-5196 Prevalence of Trichomonas vaginalis Infection among Women of Reproductive Age in Anambra State, South Eastern, Nigeria <p><strong>Aim: </strong>This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of <em>Trichomonas vaginalis</em> infection among women of reproductive age in some selected hospitals in Awka, Anambra State, Nigeria.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> This study, conducted from October to December 2021, involved 200 women aged 20 years and above as participants. Prior to specimen collection, informed consent was obtained from each woman by qualified medical personnel. High vaginal swab sticks, labeled and sterile, were used to meticulously and aseptically collect specimens from the high vaginal area. A few drops of normal saline were added to each swab stick, and within 30 minutes of collection, a wet mount examination was performed to ensure optimal results. For the wet preparation of vaginal discharge, a drop from the sample was applied to a clean glass slide with a cover slip, avoiding the trapping of air bubbles. The wet smear was then examined under a microscope using a low-power objective (x10) followed by a high-power objective (x40) to detect motile <em>T. vaginalis</em>. The vaginal secretion was characterized by the presence of epithelial cells, white blood cells, and red blood cells. The <em>T. vaginalis</em> trophozoite was identified based on its oval shape, flagellation, and distinct jerky movement.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The study area had an overall prevalence rate of 11.0% for <em>T. vaginalis</em> infection. Among the selected hospitals, COOUTH had the highest prevalence at 13.24%, while Rock Foundation Hospital had the lowest at 6.67%. Prevalence varied across age groups, with the highest rate of 16.42% found in the 30-39 years age group, and the lowest rate of 5.0% in the 20-29 years age group. Divorced women had the highest prevalence at 60.0%, while singles had the lowest at 4.7% among the marital groups. Among different occupations, traders had the highest prevalence at 12.24%, whereas students and civil servants had the lowest rates at 4.0% and 7.72%, respectively. <em>T. vaginalis</em> infection was only observed in non-pregnant women, with a prevalence rate of 13.3%.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> <em>T. vaginalis</em> infection is prevalent among sexually active women of reproductive age in the study area. The findings highlight the importance of practicing good personal hygiene and being faithful to a single sexual partner. It is recommended to raise public awareness regarding the prevention and control of <em>T. vaginalis</em> in order to reduce its prevalence among women in the study area.</p> J. C. Ozougwu C. A. Imakwu I. Nwachukwu O. A. Okeke Copyright (c) 2023 Ozougwu et al.; This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. 2023-06-14 2023-06-14 12 2 1 7 10.9734/ISRR/2023/v12i2159 Social Cultural Norms Associated with Early Marriages among Adolescents: Case Study of Chadiza District, Eastern Province of Zambia <p>Zambia is ranked 16<sup>th</sup> among countries with the highest rate of child marriage in the world. According to some studies conducted, child marriage rates in the country stand at 42 per cent of women aged between 20 and 24 years married by the attainment of the age of 18 years old. The main objective of this study was to investigate social cultural norms associated with sexuality and child marriages among adolescents in Chadiza district, Eastern province of Zambia. The mixed method design both quantitative and qualitative was used because it provides the researcher with a more comprehensive view of the phenomena being studied in this case, social cultural norms associated with sexuality and child marriages. A Systematic sampling technique was used where every third household was selected for inclusion in the study sample and 150 respondents from which 100 girls and 50 boys were selected by applying a fixed interval. The study findings indicated that most cultural practices in the study area especially initiation ceremonies provoked a girl child to opt for an early sexual debut and early marriage. On the age at first sexual debut, results showed that the minimum age to engage in sexual intercourse by the respondents was 12 years while the maximum age was 22 years for both genders. The study further unearthed the reality that girls’ initiation ceremonies exposed most girls to risk behaviours. After graduating from initiation ceremonies girls wanted to experiment whether they were really sexually able to handle any man since that is what they were taught in their initiation ceremonies a situation which led to early sexual debut among young girls and subsequently to early or teenage pregnancies and early marriages. The study recommends that the Zambian government through the responsible Ministry should regulate initiation ceremonies that pass on bad cultural practices to the adolescents and girls in particular. While appreciating the role initiation ceremonies play in preparing the adolescents for adult responsibilities, there is need to restructure the curriculum for initiation ceremonies to include sexual reproductive health rights and responsibilities.</p> Charity Daka Roy Kalinda Kusanthan Thankain Copyright (c) 2023 Daka et al.; This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. 2023-06-28 2023-06-28 12 2 8 19 10.9734/ISRR/2023/v12i2160