International STD Research & Reviews <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>International STD Research &amp; Reviews (ISSN:&nbsp;2347-5196)</strong> aims to publish high-quality papers (<a href="/index.php/I-SRR/general-guideline-for-authors">Click here for Types of paper</a>) in all areas of ‘Sexually Transmitted Disease related research’. The journal also encourages the submission of useful reports of negative results. This is a quality controlled,&nbsp;OPEN&nbsp;peer-reviewed, open access INTERNATIONAL journal.</p> en-US (International STD Research & Reviews) (International STD Research & Reviews) Fri, 31 Jul 2020 11:42:39 +0000 OJS 60 Overview of Prevalence of Syphilis in a Health Facility in Rivers State <p>Syphilis is one of the sexually transmitted diseases that is prevalent in developing countries and is of public health importance. Among pregnant women, it is reported to cause foetal defects if not treated. This study was thus carried out to determine the prevalence of syphilis among pregnant women visiting a health facility in Rivers State. Records of 482 pregnant women who visited the health facility within January and December 2018 were reviewed after obtaining due consent from the relevant authority. The sensitivity rate of the RPR test was higher than the THPA test, however the THPA has been found to be more specific. A prevalence rate of 2.28% was reported among the samples collected. The women who tested positive had little or no formal education which may have contributed to low knowledge of the disease. Intensive public health awareness on the means of transmission, symptoms, signs and effects of contracting the disease, especially among pregnant women should be carried out. Also, robust screening should be carried out at the community level in order to have proper record of the number of persons infected. Rapid test kits that are reliable should be made available also.</p> Azuonwu, Goodluck, Timothy, Theresa E. ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 31 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Effects of Highly Active Antiretroviral Treatment on Liver and Kidney Functions <p><strong>Aim:</strong> This study assesses the effects of HAART on liver and renal functions in HIV infected individuals on HAART.</p> <p><strong>Study Design</strong><strong>:</strong> Cross sectional study.</p> <p><strong>Place and Methods:</strong> This study was conducted in Tamale, Ghana from August, 2015 to November 2017.</p> <p><strong>Methodology</strong><strong>:</strong> A total of 300 HIV infected participants with ages ranging from 19 to 79 years who have been administered with HAART for at least 6 months were recruited. Pre-HAART administration (baseline) demographic and clinical information, with initial liver and renal function test results were retrieved from the medical records of the participants present at the ART center. Post HAART administration blood sample (5 mLs) was taken from each participant into a gel separated vacutainer tube, allowed to clot and spun at 3000 rpm for 3 minutes to produce serum. The product (serum) was used for liver and renal function test analysis using a fully automated chemistry analyser (Vital Scientific Selectra Flexor XL).</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Of the study population, 72% were administered with AZT/3TC/EFV, 13% with AZT/3TC/NVP, 6.7% with TDF/3TC/LPV/r and TDF/3TC/NVP, 1% with AZT/3TC/EFV while 0.7% were administered with TDF/FTC/EFV. The following parameters were significantly increased post HAART administration; ALT (25.53 ± 16.90 to 30.87 ± 19.28 U/L), ALP (163.7 ± 141.0 to 215.2 ± 143.4 U/L), GGT (37.27 ± 25.21 to 53.19 ± 41.71 U/L), Total protein (73.97 ± 17.08 to 82.31 ± 11.62 g/L), Albumin (38.02 ± 9.331 to 41.01 ± 7.471 g/L), Globulin 38.02 ± 15.71 to 42.79 ± 25.20 (g/L). There were however significant reductions in Total bilirubin (12.13 ± 10.85 to 9.434 ± 4.560 µmol/L), Direct bilirubin (6.616 ± 5.770 to 4.184 ± 2.806 µmol/L), (Creatinine 73.19 ± 36.13 to 63.14 ± 27.14 µmol/L) and Urea (3.515 ± 2.552 to 3.011±1.274 mmol/L).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>HAART improves renal function, induces elevation in liver enzymes, stimulates the production of plasma proteins and reduces serum bilirubin concentration.</p> Simon Bannison Bani, Christian Obirikorang, Kwabena O. Danquah, William K. B. A. Owiredu, Lawrence Quaye, Samuel A. Sakyi, Yussif Adams, Peter Paul M. Dapare, Moses Banyeh, Barnabas B. N. Gandau ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sat, 15 Aug 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Detection of Treponema pallidum (Syphilis) Antibodies among HIV-Infected Individuals and Sexually-active Attendees of Two Health Facilities in Port Harcourt, Nigeria <p><strong>Aim: </strong>This study reports on the detection of <em>Treponema pallidum</em> (syphilis) antibodies in HIV infected patients in Port Harcourt, Nigeria. Screening for syphilis was carried out to determine the prevalence levels of these infections, as biological markers of risk, modes, and time functions of their transmission.</p> <p><strong>Study Design:</strong> Cross-sectional study.</p> <p><strong>Place and Duration of Study:</strong> University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital (UPTH) and O.B. Lulu Briggs Medical Centre, University of Port Harcourt, both in Port Harcourt, Nigeria, between August 2012 and July 2015.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> A total of 100 HIV-infected individuals and 100 sexually-active attendees were recruited for this study. Samples of blood were collected and re-screened for the presence of HIV antibodies using the Determine HIV-1/2 (Alere), HIV ½ Stat-Pak (Chembio), and HIV-1/2/P24/O ELISA kit (Dia.Pro). The same set of samples were screened for <em>Treponema pallidum</em> specific antibodies using the syphilis Ultra Rapid Test Strip (ACON(R), USA) and syphilis rapid strips (Global, USA) following the respective manufacturer's instructions.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Among the 200 samples, serological reactivity was detected for syphilis in 3(1.5%). The incidence of syphilis was higher in males (2.0%) than in females (1.0%). Age, sex, and locality did not significantly (P&gt;0.05) influence the rate of syphilis.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>This study further confirms the presence of syphilis among the population studied. Routine screening of Syphilis among patients is therefore advocated.</p> Iheanyi O. Okonko, Tochi I. Cookey, Sofiat Adewuyi-Oseni, Amaka M. Awanye ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 09 Sep 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Barriers to Effective HIV Testing Services and Strategies for Its Promotion at the Primary Health Care Facilities in Ibadan, Nigeria <p><strong>Background:</strong> HIV testing services (HTS) act as a critical entry point to HIV care, treatment and prevention services, and offer the opportunity for specially-trained health care providers to encourage avoidance of high risk sexual behaviour among both HIV negative and HIV-positive individuals. However, there are some challenges that can hinder effective delivery of HIV Counseling and Testing services by health care providers. This study was therefore designed to investigate barriers to effective HIV testing services and strategies for its promotion at the primary health care facilities in Ibadan.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>This descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out among health care providers in primary health care facilities in five local government areas in Ibadan metropolis, Nigeria. A 4-stage sampling techniques was used to select 19 respondents and interviewed using key informant interview guide. Interviews were transcribed verbatim. Spot check of transcripts were conducted to ensure completeness of the transcription. The data were sorted, categorized, and analyzed using a qualitative data analysis computer software package (NVivo).</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>All the respondents interviewed reported that, there were pre and post-tests counseling including HIV testing services in their facilities. Some respondents added there were laboratory services and linkages to other care and support services for those tested positive to HIV. However, most of the respondents reported insufficient consumables, insufficient staff, no privacy, lack of infrastructures as barriers to effective HIV testing services. Many of the respondents recommended community sensitization, more provision for consumables, drugs and kits as strategies for promoting HIV testing services.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>This study revealed that the primary health centres have pre-test and post-test HIV counseling services but insufficient consumables and staff were the major barriers to HIV testing services in this study. It is therefore necessary for government to make provision for consumables and more personnel to boost the activities of the health facilities.</p> Christiana A. Oluwamotemi, Funmilayo A. Okanlawon, Elizabeth R. Edoni, Ademola L. Adelekan ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 21 Sep 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Treponema pallidum (Syphilis) Co-infection in Uyo, Nigeria <p><strong>Aim: </strong>HIV/AIDS remains a leading cause of death and disability in Sub Saharan Africa and this accounts for almost half of the world’s HIV related deaths. On the other hand, bacterial sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) such as syphilis contributes to the morbidity and mortality obtained in developing countries. Co-infection of syphilis and HIV may increase the risk of HIV transmission and adversely affect reproductive health. Prompt diagnosis and treatment of STDs in HIV positive individuals can help prevent spread to their partners. There is also very little information about incidence and prevalence of HIV/Syphilis co-infection and their determinants.&nbsp;The aim of this study is to evaluate the HIV/Syphilis co-infection among HIV-infected individuals in Uyo, Nigeria.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>A total of 176 individuals living with HIV participated in this study. The average age of the study participants was 39.1 years from a range of 6-67 years. Plasma samples obtained from the human subjects were analysed for presence of HIV and Syphilis antibodies using enzyme-Linked immunosorbent Assay.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Our findings showed that the overall prevalence of HIV/Syphilis co-infection in Uyo was 1.7%. Analysis of the results revealed that the variables—sex and educational background—significantly influenced the rate of syphilis sero-positivity among the population under study. While variables- age, marital status and occupational skills non-significantly influenced the rate of syphilis sero-positivity among the population under study.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>This study confirmed the co-infection of HIV and Syphilis in Uyo, Nigeria. Early screening of Syphilis and other STDs contributes to the control of infection and reduces the spread of HIV to partners. A number of primary preventive interventions for HIV and syphilis need to be adopted including use of condoms and medical male circumcision in order to improve sexual and reproductive health amongst individuals.</p> Iheanyi O. Okonko, Hope C. Innocent- Adiele, Amaka M. Awanye, Tochi I. Cookey, Charles C. Onoh ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 16 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000