International STD Research & Reviews <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>International STD Research &amp; Reviews (ISSN:&nbsp;2347-5196)</strong> aims to publish high-quality papers (<a href="/index.php/I-SRR/general-guideline-for-authors">Click here for Types of paper</a>) in all areas of ‘Sexually Transmitted Disease related research’. The journal also encourages the submission of useful reports of negative results. This is a quality controlled,&nbsp;OPEN&nbsp;peer-reviewed, open access INTERNATIONAL journal.</p> en-US (International STD Research & Reviews) (International STD Research & Reviews) Sat, 03 Apr 2021 09:54:03 +0000 OJS 60 Accelerated Scale up of Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision within the Military Health Services in Uganda: The Race towards 2020 HIV Epidemic Control <p><strong>Background: </strong>Scaling up Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision (VMMC) is a critical intervention in achieving HIV epidemic control by 2020. However, documentation of programmatic interventions to improve VMMC uptake among military populations, a population that is at high risk of HIV, is lacking. URC-Department of Defense HIV/AIDS Prevention Program (DHAPP) implemented a novel approach to accelerate VMMC uptake in the Ugandan military.&nbsp; We describe trends in VMMC uptake and associated operational costs following the intervention. We also contrast between military and civilian facilities.</p> <p><strong>Program Description: </strong>We implemented monthly mobile VMMC services throughout the country targeting soldiers, their families and surrounding communities. Records gathered during implementation were used to describe the intervention. Quantitative methods were applied to compare VMMC post intervention rates with set targets and monthly VMMC trends country-wide between military and civilian facilities over a five months period. An operational VMMC service cost analysis was applied to determine per male circumcision unit cost, excluding cost of consumables.</p> <p><strong>Lessons Learnt:</strong> Command-driven mobilization, multiple stakeholder engagement, use of mobile VMMC teams and data-driven planning increased demand for and uptake of VMMC services among the military. By the first month of intervention, VMMC performance had surpassed set monthly targets of 1,474 by 1457 circumcisions, accounting for a 99% increase (n=2,931 circumcisions) from 31% to 62% uptake. Overall VMMC performance achieved within the military was 132% in excess of set targets (n=7,408) at six months. The scaled-up operational VMMC cost per circumcision performed dropped from $15 to $7, a 47% unit cost saving within six months. While a positive trend in VMMC uptake was observed in the military facilities, the opposite was exhibited in civilian facilities over the observation period.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> It is feasible to rapidly scale up circumcision coverage in populations served by military health facilities through mobile short term episodic VMMC services which optimize volume and efficiency. Invoking command-led mobilization and multiple stakeholder involvement is critical in demand creation and overcoming the mobile nature of the military.</p> E. Lugada, G. Seruwagi, A. Nyanzi, S. Lawoko, D. Bwayo, V. Kasujja, B. Lutimba, T. Rwegyema, J. Akao, C. Wamundu, A. Musinguzi, E. Asiimwe, F. K. Kinuthia, B. Kikaire ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sat, 03 Apr 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Seroprevalence and Risk Factors Associated with Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection Type 1 in Donors of the National Blood Transfusion Center of Libreville (Gabon) <p><strong>Background: </strong>Transmission of HIV through blood transfusion remains a public health problem, particularly in countries in Sub-Saharan Africa. However, no study has determined the epidemiological data regarding HIV-1 infection in Gabonese blood donors. The objective of this study is to assess the seroprevalence of HIV-1 and the risk factors associated with infection in donors from the National Blood Transfusion Center in Libreville (Gabon).</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> A cross-sectional study carried out from June to August 2020 in 3669 persons donating blood at the National Blood Transfusion Center (NBTC). The ELISA technique (Evolis®, BioRad), the chemiluminescence technique (Cobas® e601, Roche), and the SD Bioline® HIV 1/2 test (Standard Diagnostics. Inc) were used for the detection of anti-HIV-1/2 antibodies and P24 antigen in donor plasma. Data were analyzed using SPSS software version 21.0, with p˂.05 considered statistically significant.&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The seropositivity rate HIV-1 was 0.8% (30/3669) (95% CI: 0.5; 1.1). The study was composed of 79.4% men and 20.6% women. The most representative age group was of 25-34 years with 54.5%. The seropositivity of men, women, and unrelated voluntary donors was 0.7%, 1.2%, and 1.0%, respectively. The risk factors such as the first blood donation (Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR) = 0.1 [0.0 ;0.4],&nbsp;<em>P= .002</em>), multiple sexual partners (AOR = 6.2 [2.2;17.2],&nbsp;<em>P= .001</em>), primary educational level (AOR = 10.1 [1.4;75],&nbsp;<em>P = .024</em>), and dental care (AOR = 3.6 [1.2;11],&nbsp;<em>P = .024</em>) were significantly associated with HIV infection. About 0.14% of the patients had co-infection.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> In the Gabonese context, about one out of a hundred blood donors are HIV-infected. These carriers of HIV infection in the blood banks are mainly new donors with multiple sexual partners, limited education, and poor dental care.</p> Christian Mangala, Therese Nkoa, Denis Maulot-Bangola, Franck Vivien Vigan Codjo, Joseph Fokam ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sat, 22 May 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Awareness and Knowledge of HIV Transmission and Prevention among Military Personnel in Abuja, Nigeria <p><strong>Aims: </strong>To assess the level of knowledge of HIV transmission and prevention and identify factors influencing the awareness of HIV transmission and prevention among military personnel in Nigeria.</p> <p><strong>Study design:</strong> A cross-sectional study.</p> <p><strong>Place and duration of study: </strong>The Nigerian Defense Headquarters, Abuja, Nigeria.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> Using the stratified probability sampling technique, military personnel between the age of 18 and 55 years, were recruited based on arm of service with a percentage distribution of 60:20:20 (Army, Navy, and Air Force respectively). The sample size(n) was 384 and the adjusted sample size was 427 respondents. The tool for data collection was a semi-structured self-administered questionnaire. This instrument, divided into 3 sections, was designed to obtain information on socio-demographics (sex, age, ethnic background, education level as the highest level of education attainment, experience in the military; the arm of service, rank, length of service, gender and number of sexual partners, knowledge of HIV prevention, and perception of risk of HIV transmission. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, Chi-square tests, and logistic regression at p&lt;0.05.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> While 98.5% of respondents have ever heard of HIV, 80.3% claimed to have seen or heard information about HIV, with media (85.9%) been the major source of this information. Out of the 391 respondents, 174 (44.5%) and 217 (55.5%) military personnel had inadequate and adequate knowledge of HIV transmission respectively while 80.8% and 19.2% of these respondents had inadequate and adequate knowledge of HIV prevention, respectively.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> While there was no significant difference in the proportion of those military men that had adequate and inadequate knowledge of HIV transmission, there was a clear and significant difference in the proportion of military men with adequate and inadequate prevention knowledge. Age, education, marital status, and service arm are predictive factors that could influence knowledge of HIV transmission and prevention.</p> Olajide A. Adekunle, David A. Adeyemi ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sat, 26 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Residual Risk of HIV in African Transfusional Setting: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis <p><strong>Context</strong><strong>: </strong>The residual risk of HIV transmission is still a real problem into the transfusional settings of limited resources countries. Blood banks of African countries confront the risk of transmitting HIV to recipients. The objective of this study is to estimate the residual risk of HIV in African transfusion settings and to compare this residual risk with that of other countries in the South (developping countries).</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong>&nbsp;This study resulted of a systematic review with meta-analysis of data from several comprehensive studies carried out between 2011 and 2017 whose purpose was focused on the residual risk of HIV transmission through blood transfusion. The studies on the residual risk were systematically searched in the different databases (PubMed, Medline and Google Scholar). The eligibility criteria were based on published studies which had blood donors as participants, looking at the residual risk of HIV in developing countries and the technique was based on the search for antibodies-P24 Antigen of the HIV or on nucleic acid (RNA) testing. Studies carried out before 2011 and after 2017 were excluded. Studies in rich countries were also excluded. The Cochrane tool was used to assess the risk of bias.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> A total of 327,278 seronegative donors (for 12 eligible studies) were admitted for this study, i.e. 75.5% of men and 24.5% of women. The median age of all donors was 30.4 years. For studies carried out in the Africa zone (Burkina Faso, Ivory Coast, Nigeria, Democratic Republic of Congo, Tanzania and Zimbabwe), 327,278 donors were initially seronegative, of which 626 were found to be positive. Indeed, out of 742 incident cases in this study from African countries and other countries of the South, 84.4% of positive donors came from African studies and 15.6% of positive donors came from other countries of the South in this study. The residual risk (RR) of HIV in Africa has been estimated at 13 per 1,000,000 donations, with an incidence rate (IR) of 21.5 per 100,000 person-years. And in the other countries of the South (Brazil, Croatia, India, Iran, Malaysia and Pakistan), the RR of HIV has been estimated at 0.6 per 1,000,000 donations, or an incidence rate of 1.1 per 100,000 person-years.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong>&nbsp;The residual risk of HIV in the transfusion environment is still high and still persists in blood banks in southern countries in general and in Africa in particular.</p> Christian Mangala, Joseph Fokam, Denis Maulot Bangola, Mireille Moundanga, Thérèse Nkoa ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sat, 05 Jun 2021 13:12:18 +0000 Residual Risk of HBV in African Blood Banks: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis <p><strong>Background</strong><strong>:</strong> Blood transfusions carry the risk of transmitting blood-borne infections. A precise estimate of the transfusion risk of viral infection will help to determine the effect of new and current safety measures in sub-Saharan Africa. This study proposes to estimate the residual risk of HBV in blood banks in African countries and to compare them to other countries in the South.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong><strong>:</strong> The study followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis guidelines. PubMed, Medline, Google Scholar and Zotero were accessed. The eligibility criteria were based on published studies that had blood donors as participants, looking at the residual risk of HBV in developing countries and the technique was based on the search for HBsAg or Hepatitis B Core Antibodies or Nucleic Acid (DNA) testing. The Cochrane tool was used to assess the risk of bias.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Twelve articles comprising 71,207 allogeneic and hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)-negative blood donations were included in the meta-analysis. A total of 4912 HBsAg negative African donation including (51.0%) new donors and (49.0%) from regular donors. 80.8% of them were male and the median age was 28 years. Of 1225 HBV strains (47% and 53.4% incident cases) were frequencies in sub-Saharan Africa and in other Southern countries respectively. Considering the twelve participating blood centres as a whole, the incidence rate of new infections was high (4905.1) in sub-Saharan Africa than (869.7) in other Southern countries per 100,000 person-years. In contrast, the estimated residual risk in sub-Saharan Africa (5913 in 1 million donations) was five times higher than estimated in other Southern countries (1048.4 in 1 million donations).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong>&nbsp;Blood donations with HBsAg undetectable by routine testing and low levels of HBV DNA are extremely common in sub-Saharan Africa, at a rate of 5913 per 1 million donations. Given that at least several of these samples could reflect contamination or a false negative result, elimination of infection by a test limited to HBsAg does not prevent transmission.</p> D. Maulot-Bangola, C. Mangala, J. Fokam, T. Nkoa ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 02 Jul 2021 00:00:00 +0000