Open Access Original Research Article

Knowledge and Perception of Sexual Health Education and Condom Use among STI Patients in India

Koustuv Dalal, Jahan Shabnam, Shu-Mei Wang

International STD Research & Reviews, Page 74-87
DOI: 10.9734/ISRR/2014/10888

Aims: To explore the knowledge of STI, HIV/AIDS and condom use behaviour among men and women who have been medically treated and not treated for STIs in relation to socio-demographic factors. Furthermore, the study will explore the perceptions of adolescent sexual health education at school in the aforementioned group.

Study Design: Cross-sectional study.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted in all Indian member states during 2005-2006.

Methodology: Using nationally representative samples, a cross sectional study of 8924 women and 1644 men (2948 women & 745 men received medical treatment for STIs) were used to examine their knowledge, condom use behaviour and perception of adolescent sexual health education at school. Chi-square analysis was performed.

Results: Gher proportions of respondents who were urban residents, higher educated and more affluent received medical treatment for STIs compared to their rural, less educated and poorer peers. More women (43%) who reported condom use during their last sexual intercourse received treatment vs. the group not using condoms (32%). Proportionally, more women and men who had heard about STIs and HIV/AIDS answered in favor of girl’s and boy’s sexual health education, condom use and HIV/AIDS education compared to their peers who did not hear about STIs and HIV/AIDS. Even after receiving treatment respondents reported not having enough information about STIs, or HIV/AIDS. STI patients suggested that sexuality education should be added to school curriculum for a better understanding of the diseases in the general population.

Conclusion: Indian policy makers should place emphasis on providing necessary preventive information about STIs through different channels such as treatment centers, school curriculums and awareness campaigns.

Open Access Original Research Article

Syphilis and Human Immunodeficiency Virus Co-infection among Pregnant Women in Nigeria: Prevalence and Trend

C. T. Omisakin, A. J. Esan, K. A. Fasakin, M. F. Owoseni, O. Ojo-Bola, O. O. Aina, D. P. Omoniyi

International STD Research & Reviews, Page 94-100
DOI: 10.9734/ISRR/2014/10946

Pregnant women are at increased risk of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) due to physiological changes that accompany pregnancy, such as congestion of the cervix, edema of the vaginal mucosa, and alterations in the vaginal flora. Syphilis and HIV are both transmitted sexually and so it is not surprise that a substantial number of people are infected with both agents. The rate of HIV and syphilis co-infection varies depending on the prevalence of both infections in the community or the patient group being studied, along with individual risk factors. 1913 apparently healthy pregnant women were recruited for the study after obtained their consent. Detection of HIV p24 antigen and antibodies to HIV1/2 was screened for using BIO-RAD in-vitro diagnostic enzyme immunoassay; syphilis was screen for using DIA-PRO in-vitro diagnostic Bio-probes enzyme immunoassay for the determination of antibodies to Treponema pallidum. Age group 26-30 had highest prevalence of HIV and VDRL in the study years, a decreasing trend was observed in the prevalence of HIV and syphilis infection within the study years. Sero-prevalence of HIV and VDRL were 63(3.29%) and 03(0.16%) respectively. The prevalence of HIV and VDRL co-infection was 01(0.05%) observed in age group 26-30. This present study clearly documents a relatively declined in sero-prevalence of HIV and VDRL within the consecutive three years of study, this reflects the level of HIV and VDRL in the general population.

Open Access Original Research Article

Fungal Isolation in HIV Patients and CD4 Count

O. M. T. B. Ochiabuto, A. Nwankwo, I. B. Enweani, J. O. Okoye, C. O. Okeke, M. Nwankwo, I. Nwafuluaku, C. M. Obi

International STD Research & Reviews, Page 101-112
DOI: 10.9734/ISRR/2014/10408

Aims: This study aimed to investigate fungal isolation in HIV infected patients and its relationship with CD4 count.

Study Design: Cross-sectional study.

Place and Duration of Study: This study was carried out in Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital, Nnewi, Anambra State, Nigeria (between March and July 2013). 

Methodology: A total of 100 positive Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) patients (28 males, 72 females; age range 1-70 years) were included in this study. The sputum specimens were tested for mycobacteria using Ziehl Neelson’s staining technique. Fungal sputum culture was carried out using standard conventional fungal culture method. Identification was done using chromogenic media and standard staining methods.

Results: There were significant fungal associations with gender, age and antiretroviral therapy (P≤0.05).  Out of 100 sputum samples cultured, 80 had fungal growths; 61 single and19 mixed isolates, while the remaining 20 samples were without fungal growth.  Different fungi species were isolated from 5 out of the 9 patients positive for Mycobacterium spp. A total of 8 different fungal species were isolated with Candida albicans, 24(30%), as the predominant species which had a CDcount  range of 10-200 cells/µl, while Aspergillus niveus was the least, 1(1.2%) with CD4 count range of 300-400 cells/µl. Penicillium marneiffei was the second most prevalent fungi, 11(13.8%).   Patients with CD4 T-cell count of less than 100 cells/µl had the highest frequency of fungal isolates from sputum 27(76.4 %)  (P≤0.05), while those with CD4 counts >400 cells/µl showed no fungal infection. Patients with Aspergillus fumigatus, Candida glabrata and mixed infections had a total white blood cell (WBC) count of <4.0x109 cells /1. Neutropenia was also observed in patients with Candida albicans, Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus niger and Pencillium marneiffei.

Conclusion: HIV infection increases the susceptibility to fungal colonization and infection. The CD4 counts of the patients have a strong relationship with the frequency and type of fungal isolates. The lower the CD4 count the higher the frequency of fungal isolates.   Since invasive fungal colonization of the lungs remain important causes of death in immunocompromised patients, early isolation and identification of the colonizing fungi can improve the prognosis of patients.

Open Access Original Research Article

HIV Knowledge and Its Association with Sexual Risk Behaviours among Out-of-school Adolescents in Kumba, Southwest Region of Cameroonc

Elvis E. Tarkang

International STD Research & Reviews, Page 113-124
DOI: 10.9734/ISRR/2014/11333

Background: Cameroon has a high concentration of out-of-school youth. Therefore research relating to out-of-school adolescents and HIV/AIDS is imperative. This study investigated the HIV/AIDS knowledge and its association with sexual risk behaviours among out-of-school adolescents in Kumba, Cameroon.

Methods: A cross-sectional study of a multistage probability sample of 405 adolescents aged 15-24 years was adopted. Data were analysed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software program, at the level .05.

Results: Up to 35.9% of the respondents disagreed that correct and consistent condom use can prevent HIV; 31.4% disagreed that having multiple sexual partners is a risk behaviour, and 26.9% disagreed that unprotected sexual intercourse is a risk behaviour. Respondents who disagreed that multiple sexual partner is a sexual risk behaviour reported more multiple sexual partners than those who agreed (X2=19.406; P=.02). Those who agreed that correct and consistent condom use can prevent HIV transmission, reported more condom use during first sex than those who disagreed (X2=17.799; P=.007). Those who agreed that unprotected sex is a risk behaviour, reported more consistent condom use than those who disagreed (X2=20.881; P=.05).

Conclusion: Out-of-school adolescents manifested low knowledge of HIV/AIDS, with those having low knowledge, engaging in unsafe sexual practices, and therefore at risk of HIV/AIDS transmission. 

Open Access Original Research Article

Sexual Transmitted Infection (STI) Risk Associated with Beliefs about Virginal Sex and Perceived Social Norms among Inmates in KwaZulu Natal

Torrance Stephens, Darius Gardner, Kenna Jones, Sibusiso Sifunda, Ronald L. Braithwaite

International STD Research & Reviews, Page 125-134
DOI: 10.9734/ISRR/2014/11042

This study examines the association between self-reported beliefs of primarily Zulu speaking inmates regarding virginal sex and its perceived utility for the prevention of HIV/AIDS and STIs and its impact of perceived social norms regarding sexual activity. This exploratory study was conducted to identify bivariate correlates of beliefs regarding having sex with virgins among men who were incarcerated in two prisons in KwaZulu Natal, South Africa. Findings are based on self-reported data obtained from 180 participants. The mean age of the inmates was 28.14 (SD=7.57) years of age. This exploratory study of inmates housed in KwaZulu Natal prisons found that in general, the belief that sex with virgins can cure HIV/AIDS is marginal if that among this population, yet still has a profound impact on perceived social norms regarding sexual behavior among this inmate population.

Open Access Original Research Article

Pattern of Sexual Behavior of Hawassa University Students, Ethiopia: A Qualitative Study

Abraham Alano, Yifru Berhan, Dejene Hailu

International STD Research & Reviews, Page 135-145
DOI: 10.9734/ISRR/2014/12181

Background: The body of quantitative literature that described risky sexual behavior as a predisposing factor for HIV and other sexually transmitted infection are plenty. However, little is known how risky the sexual practices of university students are in this era, particularly in Ethiopia.

Methods: A qualitative research method was employed to explore the sexual behavior of undergraduate university students. Ten students’ focus group discussions and twenty three in-depth interviews were conducted. The study participants were purposively selected students, night time taxi drivers, nightclub owners, abortion service providers, members of campus police and addictive substance sellers. 

Results: Both the focus group discussants and key informants emphasized that the sexual practices of some of Hawassa University female students were more risky than their counterpart male students. Some of the evidence the discussants pointed out were: the high number of female students competing with commercial sex workers in the night clubs; being the majority among women coming for abortion service; several local businessmen coming to the university campus to pick female students at night; and some female students being observed working in hotels as bar lady. Being away from family, academically poor, watching a sex film, peer pressure, attending night clubs, lack of control by the university and substance use were some of the predisposing factors for unsafe sex in both sex. These observations were further strengthened by the low utilization of condoms among students who practiced unsafe sex.  

Conclusion: This study has shown that some of the students were engaged in risky sexual practice both as unprotected and with multiple partners. Involvement of parents, university officials and other significant community members in a forum discussing this issue with students may bring a change in the students’ sexual behavior.

Open Access Original Research Article

Should Pre-admission Medical Tests to Tertiary Institutions Include Screening for Syphilis?

F. A. Olajubu, D. O. Fadipe

International STD Research & Reviews, Page 146-152
DOI: 10.9734/ISRR/2014/12108

Background: This study was conducted to determine the seroprevalence of syphilis among apparently healthy students of Adekunle Ajasin University, Akungba-Akoko in Ondo State of Nigeria with the view of advising the University authority to include (or otherwise) the screening for syphilis among the routine tests for pre-admission registration.

Methodology: A well-structured questionnaire was administered to assess the knowledge of volunteers about syphilis. Venous blood samples (5ml) were then collected from 1545 volunteers and screened using the Rapid Plasma Reagin (RPR) test. All seropositive samples were further confirmed using the Treponema pallidum Haemaglutination (TPHA) test.

Results: Ninety three per cent (93.0%) and 73.3% of the volunteers agreed that syphilis affects both sexes and are sexually transmitted respectively. A prevalence rate of 1.1% was recorded in the study with 12(70.6%) seropositive male out of the seventeen (17) seropositive cases detected. No seropositive case was detected among the control group.

Conclusion: Though the prevalence was low, for the sake of the control group who lives in the same vicinity with the volunteers and perceived increase in prevalence, it is strongly suggested that all students and newly appointed staff should be screened for Syphilis as a routine for pre-admission and pre-employment exercises.

Open Access Minireview Article

Sexually Transmitted Diseases Associated with Women Who Have Sex with Women

Ronald Bartzatt

International STD Research & Reviews, Page 51-63
DOI: 10.9734/ISRR/2014/8931

Aims: The aim of this work is to present the findings of various studies relevant to the incidence of sexually transmitted disease (STD) among women who have sex with women (WSW). This being an important issue when considering the numerous and diverse types of infections possible. 

Results: The various types of STD, vaginal infections, and abnormalities that are known among WSW includes: herpes simplex virus type 2, Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, trichomoniasis, syphilis, hepatitis A, HIV, genital and oral human papillomavirus, pelvic inflammatory disease, allergic vaginitis, genital herpes and genital warts, squamous intraepithelial lesions, and bacterial vaginosis. Risk factors among WSW are the number of sexual partners, minimal use of protected sexual behaviors, and very low levels of knowledge of STD prevention among WSW.  Drug-resistant pathogens have been observed in lesbian patients. 

Conclusion: The threat of infection among WSW is significant, with the types and number of viral and bacterial potential pathogens being diverse and numerous. Recognition of risks will assist in correctly identifying the STD and aid in choosing the appropriate clinical care.  Further research into the occurrence of STDs among WSW will benefit and contribute to public health.

Open Access Review Article

The Integration of HIV/AIDS and Non-communicable Disease Policies

Tilahun Nigatu Haregu

International STD Research & Reviews, Page 64-73
DOI: 10.9734/ISRR/2014/10141

Developing countries are currently facing a double burden of communicable diseases, like HIV/AIDS, and chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs). As HIV/AIDS has already turned out to be a chronic disease, the approaches of responses to HIV/AIDS and NCDs have several essential similarities. These similarities can be the basis for integrated and comprehensive chronic disease responses. Effective integrated responses to HIV/AIDS and NCDs require integrated policies. This review paper sheds light on the major concepts, rationale, approaches, challenges and evaluation criteria for the integration of HIV/AIDS and NCDs policies in the context of developing countries.

Open Access Case Study

Near-fatal Fellatio: A Case of Necrotizing Fasciitis after Oral Sex

James J. Douglas, Sherrill R. Brown, Andrew Martowski, W. David Hardy

International STD Research & Reviews, Page 88-93
DOI: 10.9734/ISRR/2014/10911

A 35-year-old man was admitted to hospital 2 weeks after rough oral sex with Streptococcus pyogenes bacteremia, toxic shock syndrome and extensive necrotizing fasciitis of the abdominal and pelvic walls requiring debridement. His partner was diagnosed with strep throat shortly after their sexual encounter.