Open Access Original Research Article

Assessing Health Education Techniques in Enhancing the Knowledge of HIV/AIDS among Adolescents

Ashok Pandey, S. Umashankar, Hai I. Dai, Chetraj Pandit, Min Kunwar, Madhu Pandey, Natisara Rai

International STD Research & Reviews, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/ISRR/2015/10961

Introduction: Adolescent refers to individuals between the ages of 10-19 years. In Nepal, Adolescent comprises more than 22% of population. Educations are important as a ‘social vaccine’, and it can serve as a powerful preventive tool.

Methods: The study was conducted on three secondary school of in Hansapur Village Development Committees, Arghakhanchi district. The sampling design used for the study was stratified random sampling. A sample size of 300 adolescent students was taken.

Results: Mean pre-intervention knowledge scores were 57.36±17.44 for pre intervention groups. After health education by the five methods in the five subgroups, the pooled mean knowledge score was enhanced to 81.80±16.47. It was highly significant (p<0.001). The overall increase in Post-intervention mean score in the intervention group (From Pre- intervention to Post-intervention) was 20.32 percent. The corresponding pre-intervention mean scores were 10.98±5.04, 12.06+6.01, 12.35±5.68, 10.98±4.99, and 10.98±4.99 respectively. Immediately after the educational activities the mean knowledge scores (Post-intervention score) enhanced to 13.13±4.96, 14.93±5.96, 16.16±6.25, 19.36±5.50, 18.20±7.16 in the book, lecture, poster pamphlets, video and participatory lecture groups respectively. It was highly significant for all the five intervention subgroups.

Conclusion: Video and the participatory lecture are the most effective health education techniques for effective delivery of HIV/AIDS. It is suggested that programme implementers might chose the suitable methods required for their individual programmes.

Open Access Original Research Article

Chlamydial Proctitis in Patients with Chlamydial Cervicitis

Kazuhiro Iwasaku, Shinji Hoshina, Hisato Koshiba, Fumitake Ito, Taisuke Mori, Kouji Iwasaku, Michiko Fujimoto, Jo Kitawaki

International STD Research & Reviews, Page 8-13
DOI: 10.9734/ISRR/2015/14352

Aims: We investigated the status of chlamydial proctitis, detected using a transcription-mediated amplification (TMA) method, in rectal mucosal swab samples from patients with chlamydial cervicitis.

Methodology: Patients with chlamydial cervicitis were interviewed, and rectal mucosal swab samples were collected for TMA. If the patient agreed, colonoscopy was also conducted. Chlamydial proctitis was treated with a single dose of oral azithromycin (2000 mg). Three weeks after treatment, additional samples from the cervix and rectal mucosa were subjected to TMA, and follow-up colonoscopy was performed.

Results: Among the 59 patients, 4 had diarrhea and 3 had melena; only 1 patient had practiced anal sex. The rectal mucosal TMA test was positive in 43 (72.9%) cases. After treatment, TMA tests of the cervix and rectal mucosa were negative in all patients and in 26 (86.7%) of 30 patients, respectively.

Conclusion: The clearance rate of chlamydial infection of the rectal mucosa was not 100% and the cervical samples became negative in all cases following treatment in this study. Further studies may be needed to determine the optimal indicator for evaluating patient treatment responses and to reliably clear the infection with an alternate drug or dosing regimen.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of HIV Infection and Antiretroviral Therapy Duration on CD4 Count, Total and Differential White Cell Count

C. O. Okeke, G. I. Amilo, M. O. Ifeanyichukwu, E. O. Obi, A. C. Okeke, N. C. Ibeh

International STD Research & Reviews, Page 14-22
DOI: 10.9734/ISRR/2015/12358

Aims: To assess CD4 counts, total and differential white cell counts in HIV positive patients on antiretroviral treatment (ART) and those not on antiretroviral treatments with varying durations of infection.

Study Design: Case-control study.

Place and Duration of Study: Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital Nnewi, Nigeria from March to August 2013.

Methodology: We included 181 subjects; sixty HIV patients on ART with infection duration of <1 – 5, >5 – 8 and >8 – 17 years and ART duration of <1 – 5, >5 – 8 and >8 – 17 years; sixty HIV patients not on ART with an infection duration of <1 – 3, >3 – 6 and >6 – 11years; and sixty-one apparently healthy individuals control. CD4 counts, total and differential white cell counts as well as Human Immunodeficiency virus (HIV) status were determined.

Results: CD4 counts was significantly higher in the control compared to the ART and non-ART and lower in HIV duration of <1 – 3 years compared to >3 – 6 years and >6 – 11 years (P<0.05). TWBC was significantly higher in non-ART compared to ART and control (P<0.05). MXD was significantly lower in control compared to ART and non-ART (P<0.05). NEUT was significantly higher in non-ART than control while LYM was higher in non-ART than ART (P<.05). TWBC was lower in <1 -3 years than >6 – 11 years both in non-ART subjects (P<.05) TWBC was also higher in female controls than male (P<.05).

Conclusion: CD4 count is generally lower in HIV subjects. TWBC is elevated in non-ART, while MXD is higher in ART and non-ART subjects. There is no difference in white cell parameters for ART subjects irrespective of differences in duration of HIV infection and antiretroviral therapy.

Open Access Original Research Article

High Risk HPV Detected in Oral Cavity of Children in a Set Population of Karachi

Faisal Irshad, Saeeda Baig, Serajuddaula Syed, Mohammad Haris Lucky

International STD Research & Reviews, Page 27-32
DOI: 10.9734/ISRR/2015/14841

Aims: The study was designed to determine the frequency of HPV in school going children and also find out cytopathological changes in the oral mucosa resulting from HPV infection.

Study Design: Cross sectional study.

Place and Duration of Study: Samples of oral rinse were collected from 300 healthy school going children (aged 5-18 years) during the period of March 2014 to June 2014 from two school campuses of  Karachi (South) Pakistan.

Methodology: Samples were divided into six ethnic groups according to mother tongue, including: Balochi, Pashto, Punjabi, Sindhi, Siraiki, and Urdu speaking. HPV was investigated using general primers (GP/5+ GP/6+) and HPV genotype kit (Genei eight high risk strains detection kit). For exfoliated cytology study slides were prepared and H&E staining was done to find out histopathological changes associated with HPV.

Results: Twenty three out of 300 (n=23/300) samples were positive representing 7.70% of the total screened. The 23 HPV positive samples included Balochi 4.3%, Pashto 13.0%, Punjabi 52.2%, Sindhi 0.0%, Siraiki 8.7%, and Urdu speaking 21.73% subjects. Further screening of high risk oncogenic genotype with Genei HPV kit yielded 6 (2%) positive samples, who were all females. None of slides was positive for any cytopathological changes.

Conclusion: The frequency of HPV was found 7.7% in school going children. The association between HPV infection, histological variables and tobacco use was not found.

Open Access Commentary Article

Are Scientists and Health Practitioners Communicating HIV Information Effectively?

J. Anitha Menon

International STD Research & Reviews, Page 23-26
DOI: 10.9734/ISRR/2015/14938

The importance of effectively communicating new scientific information to a non- scientific audience is discussed in the era of new medical regimens for HIV. With new research findings on prevention, treatment and care for HIV such as antiretroviral therapy, both as treatment and prevention, is the message being accurately understood by the non- scientific community? If not, can it be harmful? The need to communicate new HIV prevention information holistically in light of earlier information is emphasised.