Open Access Original Research Article

Adherence and Contributing Factors among HIV Infected Children in Adama Hospital Medical College, Ethiopia

Gobezie Temesgen Tegegne, Shamoro Temam, Belayneh Kefale Gelaw, Amsalu Degu Defersha

International STD Research & Reviews, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ISRR/2016/23981

Background: Human Immunodeficiency Virus/ Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) is a public health problem and major development crisis that affects all sectors. In 2013, an estimated 35.2 million people were living with HIV worldwide and 3.5 million of these were children under 15 years of age. Children continue to be born with HIV worldwide; however, sub-Saharan African is the most affected. The introduction of highly active antiretroviral treatment has extended and improved the quality of life for people living with HIV by reducing their viral load, often to undetectable levels. Strict adherence to anti retro viral treatment is essential in pediatrics in order to obtain desired benefit and to avoid the emergence of drug resistance, clinical failure.

Objective: To assess Anti-Retro Viral drug adherence and factor associated with it among HIV infected children

Methods: Cross sectional study was conducted in Adama Hospital Medical College, March 08 to June 08, 2015. Systematic random sampling technique was used and data was collected by three of the group members by using pretested structured check list. Qualitative data was categorized and summarized into matrices, figures and tables based on the kind of tools used. Quantitative data was entered and analyzed using SPSS version 16.

Results: A total of 165 caregivers of children were included in the study. The majority 92 (55.8%) of the children were females. Though 81(49.1%) of care givers did not identify the correct regimen that has been taken by a child, most of them have good knowledge and perception regarding to ART. According to Morisky Medication Adherence Scale (MMAS-8), 101(61.2%) of children were non-adherent. Age (1.0, 099) and sex (0.98, 0.62) of care givers, care-giver relation to the child (0.907), job of care-giver (0.99), educational status of care-giver (0.95) and marital status of care –giver (0.99) are not significant predictors of adherence.

Conclusion: Greater than half of the children were non-adherent.  Age and sex of care givers, care-giver relation to the child, job of care-giver, educational status of care-giver, and marital status of care giver are not significant predictors of adherence.

Open Access Original Research Article

Modeling the Global Public Health Determinants of HIV/AIDS-Related Deaths

Jandryle U. Trondillo

International STD Research & Reviews, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/ISRR/2016/25609

The alarming global incidence of HIV/AIDS epidemic prompted this research undertaking to explore several health indicators that lead to and mediate reported HIV/AIDS mortality. A number of studies attempted to explore and give light to the epidemic incidence, however, the understanding of the causality issue at the policy level is still immature. To address this issue, this paper took into account a number of health indicators linked to HIV/AIDS prognosis and explore its direct and mediating effect to the global mortality prevalence. In particular, utilizing the panel data gathered from World Health Organization (WHO) and World Bank data repository, this paper modeled the determinants of global HIV/AIDS mortality. Goodness-of-fit statistics revealed a satisfactory model fitting indices (χ2=12.711,>0.05, NFI=.966, CFI=.989, RMSEA=.064, SRMR =.044, and HOELTER=225 and 326 at 0.05 & 0.01, respectively). Furthermore, this paper developed a structural equations model to investigate quantitatively the interrelationships among identified exogenous variables and its effect on worldwide HIV/AIDS mortality. Three health indicators were identified to have indirect effect while two indicators have a direct effect on HIV/AIDS mortality. Further complicated dismantling and constructive designs are described based on the empirical findings of this paper. Mediation analysis for the final outcome is also outlined.

Open Access Original Research Article

Knowledge, Attitude and Practices about Sexually Transmitted Infections/Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STIs/STDs) among Married Employee Ladies in Qassim Province, KSA

Manal Ahmad Al-Batanony

International STD Research & Reviews, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/ISRR/2016/26067

Introduction: Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are a worldwide growing health problem. Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) lead to several complications in women such as tubal blockade, pelvic inflammatory diseases, chronic pain syndromes, sexual dysfunction and many others.

Aim of Study: The study aimed to assess knowledge, attitude and practices about sexually transmitted infections and sexually transmitted diseases among married employee women in Qassim province, KSA.

Subjects and Methods: A cross sectional study was carried out on 184 Saudi married employee ladies in the child bearing period in Qassim province was designed to test their knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) about STIs/STDs. A questionnaire was answered voluntarily by each studied participant.

Results: The results showed that the married ladies had low level of knowledge on STIs/STDs and their attitudes showed that they have many misconceptions regarding these issues. For the practice, seek treatment after having at least one manifestation of STI was significantly related to high education, high socioeconomic status and having one birth order.

Conclusion: Education and health care efforts should be implemented to improve married employee women’s KAP about STIs/STDs. Further researches are needed on this topic to get broader perspective information in this area.

Open Access Original Research Article

Risky Sexual Behaviour among University Students

J. Anitha Menon, Sidney O. C. Mwaba, Kusanthan Thankian, Clementian Lwatula

International STD Research & Reviews, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/ISRR/2016/25462

Introduction: Early sexual debut, having multiple sex partners, and non-use of condoms are some of the risky sexual behaviors among young people that makes them vulnerable to many health problems such as sexually transmitted infections (STIs), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS).

Methods: A cross-sectional quantitative survey was utilized in this study.  Eight hundred and fifty nine undergraduate students were surveyed in classrooms selected through a stratified random sample procedure. Data was collected using a self-administered questionnaire in a class room situation. The questionnaire included the Health and Behaviour Survey, National College Health Risk Behavior Survey and the Global School Health Survey.

Results: The results showed that male students were more likely to report having had more than one sexual partner. However, they were more consistent in condom use compared to female students. The study also revealed that students in the fourth (final) year were more likely to report having experienced sexually transmitted infections than those in the first year.

Conclusion: The study revealed that having multiple sex partners increased with advancement in university years attained with more males likely to report having had more than one sexual partner. Consistent condom use was generally low with students in the senior years reporting to have contracted an STI.

Open Access Review Article

Cytogenetic Studies of Recurrent Miscarriage- A Review

Yamini Pokale, Prashant Khadke

International STD Research & Reviews, Page 1-18
DOI: 10.9734/ISRR/2016/23441

Recurrent miscarriage occurs in 1–3% of couples aiming at childbirth. It continues to be a challenging reproductive problem for the patient and clinician. Therefore, identifying a cytogenetic cause for a miscarriage may be of great significance for the management of recurrent miscarriage patients. Genetic factors in the form of chromosomal abnormalities, inherited Thrombophilia, single gene disorders and other genes involved are the main causes of recurrent miscarriage. The risk of miscarriage is highest among couples where the woman’s age is 35 years or above and men’s age is more than 40 years. Constitutional chromosomal abnormalities with great risk to be transmitted to offspring are rare, but their discovery is of crucial importance in prevention of spontaneous abortion and recurrent miscarriage.