Open Access Original Research Article

Molecular Detection and Typing of Genital Human Papillomavirus among Female Medical and Nursing Students in Harare, Zimbabwe

Natasha L. Sebata, Nyasha Chin’ombe

International STD Research & Reviews, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ISRR/2017/31094

Aims: to detect and type genital human papillomavirus (HPV) in young female medical and nursing students.

Study Design: Cross sectional study.

Place of Study: The study was conducted in Harare, Zimbabwe at the College of Health Sciences, University of Zimbabwe and Harare Central Hospital’s School of Nursing in 2014.

Methodology: Self-collected cervico-vaginal swab specimens from female college students were processed and genomic DNA extracted. HPV-DNA was detected by consensus polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using two primer sets, MY09/MY11 and GP5+/GP6+. Positive PCR samples were typed by DNA sequencing and bioinformatics analysis.

Results: Cervico-vaginal swabs were self-collected from 125 students. The age range of the participants was 20-25 years with a mean age of first sexual activity of 19.22 years. One hundred and fourteen (114) out of the 125 swabs from the students had genomic DNA successfully extracted. Of these, 36 tested positive for HPV-DNA, giving a prevalence of 31.58%. Both high-risk (HPV 16, 18, 35, 45, 58, 53 and 56) and low-risk (HPV 6, 11, 40, 53, 54, 72, 81 and 86) genotypes were detected among the students.

Conclusion: A high prevalence of HPV infection in medical and nursing students in Harare was observed. Further studies are necessary to establish the true prevalence of HPV types in young and healthy women in Zimbabwe and the data generated will be useful in informing reproductive public health policies.

Open Access Original Research Article

Reasoned Action Approach to Determining Intention to Delay Sex or Use Condom among In-school Adolescents in Nigeria

Olumide Abiodun, Oluwatosin Olu-Abiodun, John Sotunsa, Kamil Alausa

International STD Research & Reviews, Page 1-16
DOI: 10.9734/ISRR/2017/30447

Background: Comprehensive sex education programs are most impactful when they are evidence-based and rooted in social theories that are proven to enhance adoption of healthy behaviours. This study used the reasoned action approach to investigate the socio-cognitive predictors of intention to delay sexual intercourse and to use a condom during next sexual intercourse.

Methods: This is a cross-sectional study of 714 in-school adolescents in Ikenne Local government Area, Southwest Nigeria who were selected through a multistage sampling method. Participants completed questionnaires that measured their socio-cognitive characteristics and the intention to delay sex and to use a condom during next sexual intercourse. Multivariate logistic regression was performed to identify significant predictors.

Results: The predictors of primary intention to delay sex were being male, older adolescents, having positive experiential attitude, positively perceived injunctive and descriptive norms. Whereas, the predictors of secondary intention to delay sex were family size greater than five, perceived capacity and autonomy about the delay of sexual intercourse; positively perceived descriptive norm and availability of a mentor. The predictors of intention to use condom among virgins were family size ≤5, perceived autonomy about condom use, positive instrumental attitude and positive perceived descriptive norm. Whereas the predictors of intention to use condoms among non-virgins participants were regular access to means of communication, perceived capacity, the teaching of sexual and reproductive health issues in school and availability of a mentor.

Conclusions: Reasoned action approach is effective in the determination of predictors of safe sex behaviours in Nigeria. It is, therefore, expedient that socio-cognitive factors especially the identified predictors should be factored into comprehensive sex education programmes for adolescents.

Open Access Original Research Article

Knowledge and Attitude of Health Care Workers towards Hepatitis B Infection and Vaccination in a Federal Teaching Hospital in South Western Nigeria

O. A. Akpor, O. M. Akingbehin

International STD Research & Reviews, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/ISRR/2017/29846

This study was carried out to determine the knowledge and attitude of health care workers in a Federal Teaching Hospital in South West, Nigeria towards Hepatitis B vaccination and infection. This study employed a quantitative descriptive survey design, with a stratified random sampling technique. Data was collected using structured self-administered questionnaire administered to 139 health care workers. Data was analyzed using descriptive statistics. The age distribution of respondents’ showed 41% and 48.9% of the respondents were in the age range of 20-30 years and 31-40 years, respectively. Only 30.2% of the respondents believe that it is vital to recap needles after use while 79.9% believe that Hepatitis B can be transmitted as a nosocomial infection. A total of 38.8% of the respondents believed that after vaccination for Hepatitis B, it is not necessary to have a blood test to confirm immunity against Hepatitis B while 61.9% of them affirmed that 90% of adults and children who are vaccinated achieve 100% protection against Hepatitis B virus. The majority of the respondents (87.1%) were of the opinion that Hepatitis B virus is about 100 times more infectious than HIV. Almost half (48.9%) of the participants indicated that a person who has been vaccinated or recovered from previous Hepatitis B infection can still infect other. Also, 44.6% of the respondent strongly agreed that vaccination against Hepatitis B virus should be made available to all healthcare workers for free. About half (48.2%) of the respondents indicated they have not been vaccinated against Hepatitis B virus and of these only 10.8% received the completed 3 dose series. Although the health care workers claimed knowledge of Hepatitis infection, their practice of preventive measures was not commensurate with their knowledge. It is therefore imperative to improve their knowledge to influence their practice. Resources for practice of Hepatitis B preventive measures should be made regularly available to the health care workers in various health institutions to reduce the transmission of Hepatitis B among the health care workers decrease medical as well as financial burden, hence improving the management of cirrhotic patients. These predictors, however, need further work to validate reliability.

Open Access Original Research Article

Knowledge of HIV/AIDS Transmission and Risk Perception among Antenatal Care Attendees in Abakaliki, Southeast Nigeria

N. C. Eze, C. N. Onwasigwe

International STD Research & Reviews, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ISRR/2017/31495

Background: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has become a major public health problem and has affected Sub-Saharan Africa heavily. Despite aware­ness campaigns, preventive measures, and more recently promotion of antiretroviral regimens, the prevalence of cases and deaths has not decreased significantly with mother-to-child transmission of HIV accounting for 20% of all HIV transmissions.  HIV risk perception has been identified as an important antecedent for one’s adoption of protective behavior against contracting the disease. Available evidence had shown that knowledge alone is not enough pertaining to HIV/AIDS prevention and control.

Objective: To assess knowledge of HIV/AIDS, evaluate risk perception among antenatal attendees in Federal Teaching Hospital Abakaliki, Ebonyi State, Nigeria.

Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study conducted among 400 women attending antenatal care clinic (ANC) in Abakaliki using a systematic sampling technique. The clients were interviewed using a pre tested semi-structured interviewer administered questionnaire. Good knowledge of HIV transmission was assessed by the proportion of respondents who correctly answered 50% of the knowledge questions. Risk perception of HIV infection was assessed by the proportion of respondents who answered yes to questions on no risk at all, low and high risk respectively. Data analysis was done using SPSS statistical software version 20 and level of significance was determined by a p-value < 0.05.  

Results: The mean age of respondents was 28±9 years. The majority (97%) were married and had formal education. All (100%) respondents were aware of HIV/AIDS but only 84% (those married with secondary education and above) had good knowledge of HIV/AIDS. Knowledge was significantly associated with marital status, educational level and occupation (p<0.05). Perceived low susceptibility to HIV infection was significantly associated with respondents’ marital status and educational level (p<0.05).

Conclusion: Knowledge of HIV/AIDS among the respondents was high. However, the low perceived susceptibility to HIV infection compared to actual risk is one of the major challenges to HIV prevention effort. There is need for intensification of mass media campaign and other public measures aimed at increasing knowledge on HIV perception and susceptibility.

Open Access Short Research Article

The Effects of HAART on the Renal Functions of HIV Positive Patients in Nsukka, South East Nigeria

Aniagolu Miriam Obiageli

International STD Research & Reviews, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/ISRR/2017/29915

Background: Renal failure is highly prevalent among persons with Human Immuno Deficiency virus (HIV) infection and is linked to high morbidity and mortality rate.

Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of HIV infection on CD4+ cells, urea and creatinine of HIV patients that are being treated with Combivir N for a period of 8 months.

Study Design: Forty three male and female HIV positive subjects ready to be placed on Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) (Combivir N) and 20 non HIV positive subjects were randomly selected and CD4+ cells, urea and creatinine levels of HIV positive subjects were determined before treatment, 4 months and 8 months into treatment.

Methodology: Flow cytometry using partec cyflow machine was used in analyzing the CD4+ cells, serum urea  was determined by Berthelot‘s method, while creatinine was measured by Bartels and Bohmer method.

Results: Mean cell level of CD4+ count was higher in 8 months of treatment (319.02 ± 138.68) than before treatment and 4 months into treatment (246.51 ± 71.30 and 310.04 ± 106.60) but lower than control group (1023. 01 ± 203.03). Mean serum level of urea was higher in 4 months into treatment (35.51 ± 13.92) than before treatment and control group (27.14 ± 11.06 and 14.71 ± 3.80). Also mean serum level of creatinine was higher in 4 months into treatment (1.30 ± 0.53) than 8 months into treatment and control subjects (0.98 ± 0.31 and 0.93 ± 0.12). In this study serum levels of urea were significantly correlated with creatinine level (p < .001).

Conclusion: The commencement of HAART for the study population led to an increase in their CD4+ count. The levels of the renal markers creatinine and urea, showed a picture of an initial derangement but an attempt towards recovery by the system. These effects are indicative of a positive prognosis with regard to HIV/AIDS infection which resulted from the initiation of HAART (Combivir N).