Open Access Original Research Article

Sexually Transmitted Infections and Treatment Practices: A Comparative Study of HIV Discordant and Concordant Couples Accessing Care at Comprehensive Health Centers in Anambra State, Nigeria

Adaeze N. Anaekwe, Chidebe O. Anaekwe, Chinomnso C. Nnebue, Adaeze O. Okonkwo, Chigozie O. Ifeadike

International STD Research & Reviews, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ISRR/2017/34741

Background: The prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STI) among HIV affected couples has implications for containment of infectiousness of HIV. Understanding correlates of STI among discordant couples could boost the effectiveness of antiretroviral interventions.

Objective: To compare the STI occurrence and treatment practices of HIV discordant and concordant couples in comprehensive health centers in Anambra state, Nigeria.

Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional comparative study of 289 (148 HIV-concordant and 141 HIV-discordant) couples, selected by multistage sampling technique. Data were collected by interview using semi-structured questionnaire and analysed with statistical package for social sciences version 22.0. Tests of statistical significance were done using chi-square and fishers exact tests and p values <0.05 were significant.

Results: The mean ages ±SD were 41.1±19.3 years for males and 34.4±9.1 years for female, while 142 (49.3%) concordant couples, compared to 122 (42.4%) discordant counterparts were sexually active (p = 0.001), 61 (22.9%) of these do not use condoms (p = 0.401), 104 (35.9%) had previously treated STI. Gonorrhoea in males 61(89.7%) and candidiasis in females 25 (65.8%) were the commonest STI. More concordant couples had both partners ever treated STI (p = 0.004). Frequency of sexual intercourse (p=0.007) and occasional or never used condoms (p=0.037) were associated with more history of previous STI treatment.

Conclusion: This study found that more concordant couples had both partners ever treated STI, while frequent sexual intercourse and occasional or never use of condoms, both more in discordant than concordant couples, were associated with more history of previous STI treatment. We therefore recommend couple-level STI interventions that combine treatment and behavioral change communication.


Open Access Original Research Article

Sexually Transmitted Infections among Female Sex Workers in Some Selected Region of Bayelsa State

B. O. Eledo, Sylvester C. Izah, E. C. Onuoha

International STD Research & Reviews, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/ISRR/2017/34506

This study investigated some sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among some most at risk population (MAPS) in Bayelsa state. Blood samples were collected from 156 (one hundred and fifty six apparently healthy female sex workers (FSW) aged between 19 to 41 years and screened using standard procedures. Results showed that 9.62% of the FSW in the study area among the various grade had STIs. Of the overall prevalence rate in this present study, the occurrence of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), hepatitis C virus (HCV) and Syphilis is 8.33%, 0.00%, 0.64% and 0.64% respectively. HIV has the highest occurrence rate, suggesting STIs being cofactors of HIV transmission. There was a low occurrence of STI noted in the study.


Open Access Original Research Article

Correlates of Secret Multiple Partnership within Stable Relationships, Sex Differentials and HIV Risk amongst Tiv People of North Central Nigeria

Timiun Godwin Aondohemba

International STD Research & Reviews, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/ISRR/2017/32577

Background: Despite the consensus in both the developing and developed countries that concurrent multiple sexual relationship is unsafe sexual behaviours; gaps exist in knowledge with regard to the dynamics of secret multiple partnership within stable relationships that account for over 40% new HIV infection in Nigeria. This study examines the correlates of secret multiple partnership within stable relationships, sex differentials and HIV risk amongst Tiv people, Nigeria.

Methods: A sample of 1,621 (864 women; 757 men; 815 HIV seropositive; 806 HIV seronegative) respondents who participated in survey and in-depth interviews were selected from 2 clinics and 2 other locations using multi-stage and purposive sampling methods. SPSS (version 21) was used for quantitative data analysis. 

Results: Approximately 38% men and women who are married have reported being aware of their partners’ secret sexual relationships. Fifty three percent women and 46.2% men who are aware of their partner’s secret relationships are HIV positive.  The correlates vary, but the common factor associated with both men and women whose partners are engaged in secret relationships is partners’ absence from home for a longer period. Married men are more likely to engage in secret multiple partnerships than their female counterpart.

Conclusion: Information on correlates of secret multiple partnerships and HIV risk in stable relationships could be of considerable benefits for developing strategies for HIV prevention through secret multiple sexual relationships that are shrouded in unsafe sexual practices, especially in Nigeria and Africa at large where secret multiple partnerships are common but condom use is low.


Open Access Original Research Article

Knowledge, Attitude and Practice towards Long Acting Reversible Contraceptives among Clinical Sciences Students, University of Bradford, UK

Emily Davison, Md. Anwarul Azim Majumder

International STD Research & Reviews, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/ISRR/2017/34862

Aim: To investigate the knowledge, attitudes and practice of Clinical Sciences students at the University of Bradford, UK towards Long-acting Reversible Contraceptives (LARCs).

Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted to investigate the KAP (knowledge, attitude and practice) of LARC among Clinical Sciences students at the University of Bradford, UK during Jan-Feb 2016. Female students of all stages (Foundation year, Year 1 to Year 3; n=228) of Clinical Sciences Department were invited to participate in the study. A self-completed paper-based questionnaire was developed by the researcher and 147 questionnaires were completed.

Results: Low uptake of LARCs (10.2%) and knowledge of contraceptive efficacy were found. Students reported contraceptive efficacy as the most important factor considered for contraceptive choice. Students were highly likely to use emergency contraception (78.9%) but unlikely to terminate an unwanted pregnancy (39.5%).

Conclusion: Students’ knowledge of contraception requires improvement to maximise the uptake of LARCs and thus student welfare. Further research is also required.

Open Access Review Article

Foreign Aid Initiatives and the HIV/AIDS Epidemic in Nigeria: Perspectives on Country Ownership and Humanistic Care

B. N. Joseph, C. A. Abimiku, D. A. Dangiwa, D. M. Umar, K. I. Bulus, M. L. P. Dapar

International STD Research & Reviews, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/ISRR/2017/34538

With a prevalence rate of 3.1%, Nigeria has a generalized HIV/AIDS epidemic. Like much other developing countries, Nigeria has to collaborate with development partners to fight the HIV/AIDS scourge. This review assesses the impact of foreign aid initiatives on the fight against HIV/AIDS in Nigeria. It examines Nigeria’s capacity and willingness to independently own a sustainable provision of HIV/AIDS care in the country. This paper assesses the outcomes of the HIV/AIDS scheme. Our review indicates that foreign aid initiatives were responsible for the rapid scale-up in HIV/AIDS services and improvement in morbidity and mortality rates. While foreign aids have contributed to the reversal of both prevalence and incidence rates of HIV, donor funded initiatives have overstretched the workforce and the health systems thus diverting healthcare emphases towards specific disease intervention programmes. Evaluation of outcomes measures has consistently excluded viral load assessment, antiretroviral resistant testing and the provision of salvage regimen. Nigeria’s budgetary allocation to the health sector is still very low, consequently, government willingness and commitment to the fight against HIV/AIDS is grossly inadequate. The HIV/AIDS programme is still donors dependent and often seen as “donor-agency things”. The global aid initiatives have recorded a milestone achievement in the fight against HIV infections in Nigeria. While much is needed from the donor agencies, Nigeria must ensure deliberate commitment towards an independent ownership of HIV/AIDS scheme in Nigeria.