Open Access Original Research Article

The Prevalence of Trichomonas vaginalis infection and Associated Risk Factors among Undergraduate Female Students of Babcock University, Ilishan-Remo, Ogun State, Nigeria

John Hannatu Senchi, Enitan Seyi Samson, Adeyemi Olumuyiwa, Itodo Grace Eleojo, Otuneme Gladys Oluchi, Olayanju Ayodeji OluSola

International STD Research & Reviews, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/ISRR/2017/34301

Background: Trichomonas vaginalis infection is the most common curable sexually transmissible disease (STD) among women of reproductive age worldwide.

Aims: To determine the prevalence rate and associated risk factors of Trichomonas vaginalis infection among undergraduate female students of Babcock University, Ilishan-Remo, Ogun State, Nigeria.

Study Design: This is a cross-sectional, as well as institutional-based study.

Methodology: Six Halls of residence were selected for screening and a total of two hundred (200) high vaginal swab samples were randomly collected from consenting female students and analyzed by wet mount preparation. Demographic and clinical information of the participants were obtained using prepared questionnaires.

Results: Out of the 200 female students that were examined, 25 (12.5%) were positive for Trichomonas vaginalis infection. Among the 25 individuals who tested positive for T. vaginalis infection, only 2 (8.0%) were without symptoms associated with vaginal trichomoniasis, while the remaining 23 (92.0%) presented symptoms such as vaginal odour (20%), itching and discomfort (32%) and greenish yellow vaginal discharge (92%). Statistical analysis shows that there was no significant difference (P>0.05) in the prevalence rate of Trichomonas vaginalis infection among the study participants on the basis of: Age, Tribe, Religion and Study Level; except for Hall of residence. The occurrence of T. vaginalis infection particularly among the occupants of Hall 6 (45.0%) was significantly higher (P<0.05) compared to the occupants of other Halls of residence: Hall 3 (13.0%) and Hall 5 (6.3%). Meanwhile, there was no record of T. vaginalis infection in the rest of the Halls (Hall 1, 2 and 4). Risk factors associated with the occurrence of T. vaginalis infection among the study participants include: Sexual activities, douching, wearing of wet pant, sharing underwear, sharing sanitary facilities and use of sanitary pads among others.

Conclusion: Trichomonas vaginalis infection exists among undergraduate female students of Babcock University. Improvement on the level of personal hygiene and toilet sanitation of Students' Halls of residence is very crucial to the control of non-veneral mode of transmission for T. vaginalis infection.


Open Access Original Research Article

Knowledge, Attitude and the Use of Patient Package Inserts: Perspectives on Adherence to Antiretroviral Therapy

B. N. Joseph, M. N. Nyam, B. M. Aya, U. O. Asiegbu, J. Bulus, D. M. Umar, S. I. Joseph, P. A. Damun, D. W. Dayom, M. L. P. Dapar

International STD Research & Reviews, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/ISRR/2017/35579

Introduction: Patient package insert is an innovative tool capable of providing additional medication information in written form; it has the potential to promote adherence to antiretroviral medicines.

Objectives: This study assessed the knowledge of respondents on antiretroviral medicines. It determined the proportion of clients who read the Patient Package Inserts (PPIs) for antiretroviral medicines. The study assessed the impact of using the Patient Information Leaflets (PILs) on adherence to antiretroviral therapy.

Methods: A cross-sectional design involving simple random sampling was employed. The study recruited 404 participants from the HIV/AIDS centres of Bingham University Teaching Hospital (BHUTH) and Plateau State Specialist Hospital (PSSH), Jos, Nigeria. Pre-tested structured questionnaires were administered to participants. Data was analysed with the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 20.0 and p < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results were presented in descriptive and inferential statistics.

Results: The study revealed that 36.1% of the respondents read the patient package inserts. Reading the package inserts was statistically associated with educational status (p=0.000), marital status (p=0.022), occupation (p=0.000), gender (p=0.000) and religion (p=0.000). Adherence in the last one week significantly correlated with age (p=0.048) and marital status (p=0.002). One-third of the respondents had good perception about patient information leaflets. Using the leaflets had no statistically significant implication on adherence to antiretroviral medicines.

Conclusion: The study found poor usability of the patient package inserts among HIV/AIDS clients; although, the adherence level among the clients was quite high.


Open Access Original Research Article

Factors Determining the Use of Condoms at the Onset of Pre-marital Sexual Relationships among Never Married Youths in Zambia

Kusanthan Thankian, Sidney O. C. Mwaba, Anitha J. Menon

International STD Research & Reviews, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/ISRR/2017/35733

An emerging public health concern is the high risk of sexual behaviour among youths with increasing number of sexually active youths in developing countries engaging in premarital sex, more especially in sub-Saharan Africa. Consistent condom use is central to the prevention of unwanted pregnancies, HIV and other STIs, yet young men and women alike are hesitant to use condoms because of the threats they encounter in their relationships, cultural roles and at times economic survival. The present study used data from the 2013 Zambia Demographic Health Survey (ZDHS), and data analysis was restricted to never married youths to explore factors that determine condom use at the onset of pre-marital sexual relationships among youth in Zambia. More than half of the respondents were in the age range 15-19, while the rest were aged between 20-24, 70% of females and 64.2% of males had reached secondary education and higher. Results showed that 20% of females and 32% of males reported having been sexually active by the age of 15, female respondents from poor backgrounds reported more likelihood of being sexually active by the age 15. Women who are working and men and those with lower education were more likely to have been sexually active by the age of 15.More females (45.9%) reported to have used a condom at first sex than their male counterparts (31%). Respondents from rural areas and those from a rich background were also more likely to report using a condom at first sex than their counterparts from urban areas and or from a poor background. Furthermore, education significantly increased the likelihood of young women reporting to have used a condom at first sex for both genders. Logistic regression confirmed that age, wealth, education, reading a newspaper at least once a week and watching television had significant influence on using a condom at first sex among the participants. We recommend that the never married youths need to be empowered with educational opportunities together with increased information dissemination on the advantages of abstinence from premarital sex and also the benefits of condom use if the youths must engage in premarital sex.


Open Access Original Research Article

A Cost-effectiveness Study of the Quadrivalent HPV6/11/16/18 Vaccination in a Two-dose Scheme in Girls of 9-11 Years Old Compared to Bivalent HPV 16/18 Vaccination in Ecuador and Challenges for Public Health and Screening

Maria Isabel Roldós, Isabel Espinosa, Amit Kulkarni, Matthew Pillsbury, Andrew Pavelyev, Homero A. Monsanto, Diego Guarín, Miguel Cashat-Cruz

International STD Research & Reviews, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ISRR/2017/35382

Aims: Assess the incremental cost-effectiveness of the quadrivalent HPV6/11/16/18 vaccination as administered in a two-dose scheme to girls between 9 and 11 years old, as compared to the bivalent HPV 16/18 vaccination administered in Ecuador, and to estimate the cost-saving of preventing GW while preventing cervical cancer with both vaccines.

Study Design: We used a previously developed transmission dynamic mathematical model to evaluate the impact of routine vaccination of 9-11 year-old females. The model assumed coverage of 90% for two doses of HPV6/11/16/18 vaccine at international price rates versus HPV16/18 vaccine and costs for genital warts treatment. Other simulation parameters include: country socio- demographic variables, sexual behavior and screening parameters among Ecuadorian girls.

Results: Over a 100-year period, HPV6/11/16/18 vaccination would result in reductions of HPV 6/11-related disease incidence at the population level as follows: genital warts in females (81.3%), genital warts in males (78.9%) and HPV6/11-related CIN1 (79.7%). These results would translate into a reduction of HPV 6/11-related disease cost of between 52% to 56% for genital warts among females, genital warts among males, and HPV6/11-related CIN1. Under the model assumptions, the estimated net cost of vaccination with the HPV6/11/16/18 vaccine from a public health perspective would be close to -USD$256 million. Adjusted to the net present value, this cost-saving represents USD$180,735,849.09 with a present value interest factor of 0.9512.

Conclusions: In Ecuador, routine vaccination of 9-11 year old females with a quadrivalent HPV6/11/16/18 vaccine is cost-saving compared to a bivalent HPV 16/18 vaccine, which suggests a significant public health and economic impact.


Open Access Original Research Article

Alcohol Use and Sexual Behaviour among Men who have Sex with Men in Kampala, Uganda

Geoffrey Kabaale, Gloria Seruwagi, Noah Kasunumba, Catherine Nakidde, Eric Lugada

International STD Research & Reviews, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/ISRR/2017/35920

Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate alcohol use among men who have sex with men (MSM) in the Kampala Metropolitan District, and determine how alcohol use may relate to sexual behavior.

Study Design: A cross sectional study was conducted among MSM aged 18 years and above.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted in Uganda’s Kampala Metropolitan District (including the neighboring suburbs of Mukono and Wakiso). Data collection was undertaken between June and September 2016.

Methods: A mixed-methods study which used Respondent-driven sampling (RDS) to recruit MSM ≥18 years who reported anal sex with another man in the previous six months. MSM were interviewed in over 6 waves. Quantitative data was collected using semi-structured questionnaires and analyzed using SPSS and STATA while qualitative data was collected using focus group discussions, key informant guides and analyzed thematically.

Results: A total of 129 MSM participated in the study with a median age of 25 years (inter quartile range, 21–29 years). The prevalence of alcohol use was 84% [CI (76%-91%)] while knowledge on national laws restricting alcohol use was 66%. Taking alcohol before sex had a significant relationship (p=0.011)  as did membership in a Community-based Organisation (CBO) -  MSM in CBOs  were 8 times more likely to be involved in sex work (p=0.005) with alcohol use. Bivariate analysis indicated that higher education level reduced the chances of engaging in sex work by 78%. However alcohol use did not influence unprotected Insertive Anal Intercourse (IAI) (p = 0.517), Receptive Anal Intercourse (RAI) (p = 0.768) or coercion into sex (p= 0.058).

Conclusion: Majority of MSM use alcohol to enhance confidence and pleasure while knowledge of the laws restricting its usage and dangers does not determine use. It is therefore essential to address mostly the behavioral issues associated with alcohol use in order to achieve reduction of alcohol-related problems and sexual illnesses including HIV among high-risk populations.