Open Access Original Research Article

Seroprevalence of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) among Blood Donors Attending National Blood Transfusion and Research Center in Sana'a City, Yemen: Warning Sign

Tawfique K. Al-Zubiery, Hafez Alsumairy, Talal Alharazi, Adel Al-Zubeiry, Amar A. Jabir, Majedi A. saleh, Manal J. Muckbil

International STD Research & Reviews, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/ISRR/2018/39984

Aim: To determine the seroprevalence of HIV among blood donors in Sana'a city: Yemen.

Study Design: A descriptive cross-sectional study.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted at the National Blood Transfusion and Research Center in Sana'a City, Yemen; during the period from October 2016 to January 2017.

Methodology: We included 3606 subjects (99.2% men, 0.8% women; age range 16-45 years) who enrolled in this study. The estimation of the prevalence of anti-HIV antibody was done using enzyme immunoassay (EIA) technique. Testing of blood donors specimens was performed at the laboratory virology unit.

Results: Out of 3606 blood donors who enrolled in this study, 0.6% donors were found to be reactive for the anti-HIV antibody, 82.0% of them were among blood donors residing in Sanaá Capital city. The prevalence rate of HIV was higher among students (0.9%), followed by military (0.8%), professional workers (0.6%), and handicrafts (0.4%). Half (50%) of HIV seropositive was detected among the age group 26-35 years old with prevalence rate 0.7%, followed by 16-25 and 36-45 years old with an account 0.6% and 0.5% respectively. There was no statistically significant difference (p > 0.05).

Conclusion: A substantial percentage of HIV seroprevalence was detected among our Yemenis blood donors. A strict selection of blood donors with the concern on getting voluntary donations is necessary.


Open Access Original Research Article

The Traffic Police Officers’ Knowledge on HIV Prevention Measures While Handling Road Traffic Accidents Victims along Jinja- Malaba High Way in Eastern Uganda

Fiona Ayebale, Joel Bazira

International STD Research & Reviews, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/ISRR/2018/38399

Background: The HIV/AIDS epidemic continues to pose significant development and public health challenges in Uganda. One of the contributors to HIV prevalence is road traffic accidents. Traffic police officers who respond to save victims need to have adequate knowledge of HIV prevention and also possess proper safety gadgets/equipment. The current study was carried out to assess traffic police officers’ knowledge on HIV prevention measures while handling road traffic accident victims along Jinja-Malaba highway.

Methodology: The study design was cross sectional study; questionnaire, data abstraction form and observational checklist tools were used. Data was collected from traffic police officers’ along Jinja –Malaba highway using a questionnaire and observational checklist. Data about accidents for one year period from January 2014 to December 2014 was extracted from the accident record books at police stations using data abstraction form. Data was entered into Microsoft Excel 2010, analyzed using STATA version 12 and is presented as tables, graphs and pie charts.

Results: A very high number of road accidents were recorded to have occurred along Jinja-Malaba highway for one year period from January 2014 to December 2014.

Of the 45 officers who participated in the study, 60% had adequate knowledge on HIV transmission and 51.1% had adequate knowledge on HIV prevention measures while handling road accident victims.

Most police stations visited had gloves but they lacked other safety gadgets/equipment like Waste bins, plastic bags, masks, safety glasses, gowns, plaster, hand washing provision, soap and disinfectants.

Conclusion and Recommendations: Although officers had adequate knowledge on HIV transmission and prevention, lack of safety gadgets/equipment can immensely contribute to inadequate application of the safety precautions. Therefore, the government should equip police stations with more safety gadgets.


Open Access Original Research Article

Sero-Surveillance and Risk Factors of Hepatitis B Virus among Pregnant Women in Sokoto, North-Western Nigeria

Alkali Bello Rabiu, Ottah Chidinma May, Shuaibu Abdulmalik Bello, Abubakar Firdausi Ibrahim, Audu Musa, Aisha Bello, Bello Mukhtar

International STD Research & Reviews, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/ISRR/2018/38992

Background: Maternal infection with Hepatitis B virus (HBV) can lead to chronic infection in the neonate, and the risk depends on her status of Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and Hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg). This study aimed at determining the sero-surveillance of HBV among pregnant women in Sokoto, Nigeria. Blood samples from 93 pregnant women were tested for the HBV using Immunochromatographic Methods (Aria, USA) and seropositive samples evaluated for TNF-alpha and ALT. Questionnaires were administered to get socio-demographic information.

Statistical Analysis: SPSS ® statistical software.

Results: The HBV seroprevalence was17.2% for HBsAg.

Conclusions: The seroprevalence of HBsAg was 17.2%. Elevated TNF-alpha level and ALT level were associated with HBV infection. Therefore, screening of pregnant women for Hepatitis B is necessary to identify the neonates at risk.

Open Access Original Research Article

Gender Differentials in Premarital Sexual Behavior among Never Married Young People in Zambia

Thankian Kusanthan, Christopher Mapoma

International STD Research & Reviews, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/ISRR/2018/41095

This article explores gender differentials in factors affecting pre-marital sexual behaviour among adolescents in Zambia. Data used in this article was derived from the 2013 Zambia Demographic Health Survey. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify gender differentials in sexual initiation in relation to other socio-economic variables. Results show that 52 percent of females and 28.1 percent of males have had sex with one partner; 29percent and 21.8 percent of females and males respectively have had sex with two partners while 12 percent and 16 percent of females and males respectively reported having had sex with three or more partners twelve months prior to the survey. Age, wealth status, educational level, reading newspapers, watching television and drinking alcohol were strong predictors of engaging in premarital sex among the female youth. Working females were 1.8 times more likely to report having had premarital sex compared to those not working. Similarly, the female youth who drank alcohol were 3 times more likely to report having had premarital sex compared to those who did not. On the other hand, the male youth who drank alcohol were 3 times more likely to report having had premarital sex compared to those who did not. Based on these findings, it is imperative to state that gender plays an influencing role in determining sexual behaviour between males and females. Findings shows that females initiated sex earlier than males while certain variables only affected one gender comparatively. Results here point to the fact that factors such as wealth status, education level, and alcohol intake are significant contributors affecting sexual initiation among adolescents in Zambia. In view of this finding, future interventions with the aim of contributing to delaying sexual initiation should also take into account socio-economic and demographic factors as well as gender specific influences as core to influencing sexual debut among adolescents in Zambia. 


Open Access Review Article

Epidemiology of Hepatitis B Virus Infection in South-South, Nigeria: A Review

C. F. Umego, C. I. Mboto, E. N. Mbim, U. O. Edet, U. E. George, J. E. Tarh

International STD Research & Reviews, Page 1-17
DOI: 10.9734/ISRR/2018/36989

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a small enveloped DNA virus of the Hepadnaviridae family associated with infection of the liver, and a major public health problem globally. The virus preferentially infects the liver leading to hepatic complications such as hepatic carcinoma and liver cirrhosis. About two billion people globally have been estimated to be infected with hepatitis B virus and approximately 350-400 million others reportedly suffer from the chronic forms. An estimated two million of these carriers die each year as a result of complications. The mode of transmission of the disease is largely through unprotected sex, mother-to-child transmission (MTCT), contaminated blood and blood products and use of contaminated sharp objects or instruments. Africa is a high endemic area with 7–26% prevalence rate of HBsAg. Nigeria has been placed among the group of countries endemic for HBV infection with about 18 million infected. In recent years, the rates of prevalence of HBV have been increasing within the South-South part of the country. Serological and molecular techniques are currently employed not only in the diagnosis of this infection but also to assess the prognosis of the disease, guide therapy and monitor treatment responses. Treatment is highly supportive and two major groups of antiviral treatment licensed for the treatment of chronic HBV infection are pegylated interferon alpha and nucleoside or nucleotide analogues. Interrupting early transmission is key to breaking the cycle of ongoing HBV infection. In addition to active vaccination, the implementation of blood safety strategies including quality-assured screening of all donated blood and components used for transfusion may prevent transmission of HBV to a significant level.