Open Access Original Research Article

Preliminary Survey on the Prevalence of Vaginal Candidiasis among Women Contraceptive Users Attending a Tertiary Health Facility in Kano Metropolis, Northern Nigeria

M. U. Ali, N. H. Namau, S. M. Yahaya, U. A. Umar, M. S. Inuwa, M. I. Hassan, AI Sale

International STD Research & Reviews, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ISRR/2018/40926

The prevalence of Candida albicans infection in women attending Muhammadu Abdullahi Wase specialist Hospital was investigated in relation to use of contraceptives. A total of 100 high vaginal swabs were collected and examined for Candida albicans infections using wet preparation, germ tube test and Gram-staining. A structured questionnaire was administered to the study subjects to derive information on contraception practice. The study revealed an overall infection prevalence of 13.0%, without significant association with the use of contraceptives (P>0.05), frequency of contraception (P>0.05), age-groups (years) of the subjects (P>0.05), and type of marriage; polygamy (13.04%) and monogamy (12.99%) (P>0.05). However, infection prevalence was found only among age-groups 21-25 (20.0%), 26-30 (8.7%) and 31-35 (20.0%). Prevalence of Candida albicans infection concerning a type of contraceptive use is: injection (11.63%), pills (16.67%), implants (36.36%) and IUDs (0.0%), while non-users had 7.14% with the statistically significant association (P<0.05). The findings revealed little influence of contraception on the prevalence of vulvovaginal candidiasis due to C. albicans infection with the IUDs even playing safer than other methods of contraception used by the study population.


Open Access Original Research Article

The Effects of a Mixture of Extracts from Indigenous Herbs on HIV/AIDS Patients Employing CD4+ T Lymphocyte Counts and Viral Load Reductions as Assessment Indices

M. K. Elujoba, C. I. C. Ogbonna, F. Chinyere, F. O. Elujoba, E. Ayanda, E. Newton

International STD Research & Reviews, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/ISRR/2018/37762

Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection is treated in some part of Africa using different herbal combinations. The study aimed at determining the effects of herbal extracts on HIV/AIDS patients and to access its antioxidant effects in vitro. The extract was made from selected fruits, leaves and mixed with honey. The herbal mixture was employed based on the claims by indigenous Biotechnologist (Medical Botany Practitioners) that such extracts were effective in HIV/AIDS management.  A total number of 95 volunteers’ from Jos North, Jos South and Mangu Local Government Areas, Plateau State, Nigeria were therefore chosen for this study. All the study subjects were adequately diagnosed prior to the study to ascertain their HIV/AIDS positivity status, CD4 counts and viral load baselines. They were further divided into age brackets to find out the age brackets that responded best to the treatment. The response of the patients was monitored using the CD4 counts increase and viral load reductions as indices at 6th, 12th, 18th and 24th-month intervals. Significant improvements were recorded in viral load reductions and CD4 counts in all the age groups after the 18th month except for the age group 20 – 29 years. The active age group (20 – 49 years) had a cumulative incidence of 88% of the total study population. The highest percentage adherence of 83% was recorded in 40 – 49 years volunteers while the highest non-adherence was recorded as 64% in 50 – 59 years volunteers. The herbal mixture possesses good in vitro antioxidant effect when compared with Butylated hydroxyl toluene (BHT). The present study showed that herbal therapy could reduce the viral loads and increase CD4 counts of HIV/AIDS patients. The herbal treatments were therefore effective. However, it should act as a supplementary treatment for patients and should not replace the conventional Anti-retroviral therapy.


Open Access Original Research Article

Sexual Risk Behaviors and Associated Factors among Senior Secondary Schools Adolescents in Owerri, Imo State Nigeria

Chigozie O. Ifeadike, Chinomnso C. Nnebue, Chimdiuto I. Oparaji, Ogbaru F. Okorie, Uju C. Okoro, Vivian C. Okoyechira

International STD Research & Reviews, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/ISRR/2018/42467

Background: The aetiology of sexual risk behaviors is multifactorial. Adequate information on the linkages and influences of these factors on sexual practices of adolescents could hypothetically inform strategies to stem consequential negative implications.

Objective: To determine sexual risk behaviors and associated factors among senior secondary schools adolescents in Owerri, Nigeria.

Subjects and Methods: An institution-based cross‑sectional descriptive study of sexual risk behaviors among 384 senior secondary schools adolescents in Owerri Municipal, selected using multistage sampling technique was done. Data were collected using pretested self- administered semi- structured questionnaires and were analysed using International Business Machine/ Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 22   Statistical significance were identified with Chi‑square tests for proportions, at p values ≤ 0.05.

Results: The mean age was 16 ±0.5 years. The mean age at first sexual intercourse was 14 ±1.3 years; with a bimodal age at first intercourse (15 and 16 years). Out of 40 (74%) who ever had sexual intercourse, 31 (57.4%) reported multiple sexual partnerships, 34 (63%) of which reported use of contraceptives, mostly condoms 28(51.9%). The factors associated with sexual practices are; age (p=0.000), gender (p=0.000), nature of school (p=0.000), ownership (p=0.002), alcohol use (p=0.000) and residence of parents (p=0.005).

Conclusions: This study revealed a decreasing age at sexual initiation and a progressive increase in sexual activity with increasing age. Most of them indulged in sexual risk behaviors

We recommend formal comprehensive sex education programs targeted at delaying age at first sexual act and ensuring safe sexual practices among this age group.


Open Access Original Research Article

Metabolic Disorders of Vitamin D and Parathyroid Hormone in Patients Living with Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Taking Antiretroviral Treatment in Côte d’Ivoire

Aya Jeanne Armande Aké, Lydie Boyvin, Kipré Laurent Séri, Adou Francis Yapo, Allico Joseph Djaman

International STD Research & Reviews, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/ISRR/2018/43190

Background: A number of studies have highlighted the phosphocalcic balance disorder and posed the problem of the correlation between 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 and parathyroid hormone in people living with HIV (PLHIV). However, few studies have been conducted on the link between antiretroviral therapy and the level of 25 (OH) D3 during HIV infection. The objective of this study was to evaluate 25 (OH) D3 and the parathyroid status in HIV-infected people taking antiretroviral treatment in Côte d'Ivoire.

Methods: The study involved 326 adults (163 HIV-infected patient and 163 control subjects). CD4 count was performed in flow cytometry. 25 (OH) D3 was assayed by HPLC. Parathyroid hormone was assayed using COBAS 6000.

Results: The deficiency of 25 (OH) D3 was observed in patients aged 18 to 25 years and in patients on AZT-3TC-EFV (13 ± 0.68 ng / mL), AZT-3TC-NVP (11 ± 0.15 ng / mL) and TDF-3TC-EFV (19 ± 0.57 ng / mL). Sufficient levels of 25 (OH) D3 were observed in patients receiving TDF-3TC-LPV/r. 25 (OH) D3 deficiency was observed in women receiving AZT-3TC-EFV, AZT-3TC-LPV/r or TDF-3TC-EFV and men receiving AZT-3TC-NVP or AZT-3TC-LPV/r. The levels of PTH were normal in all patients aged 26 to 34 years and treated with AZT-3TC-EFV (9 ± 0.08 pg / mL), AZT-3TC-NVP (7 ± 0.21 pg / mL) or TDF-3TC-EFV (8 ± 0.25 pg / mL). Patients with CD4+ count between 349 and 200 cells / mm3 and patients who were treated with AZT-3TC-NVP (7 ± 0.21 pg/ mL) also had normal PTH levels.

Conclusion: Some antiretroviral combinations prescribed in Côte d'Ivoire induce a decrease in the serum level of vitamin D and parathyroid hormone in PLHIV. It would, therefore, be necessary to add a vitamin D supplement when prescribing these combinations, considering its importance in cellular metabolism.


Open Access Review Article

Prevention and Control of Chagas Disease – An Overview

A. R. L. Teixeira, C. Gomes, A. C. Rosa, P. F. Araujo, C. E. Anunciação, E. Silveira-Lacerda, A. B. Almeida, S. Petrofeza

International STD Research & Reviews, Page 1-15
DOI: 10.9734/ISRR/2018/42594

Chagas disease is the main cause of heart failure and sudden death in the Western Hemisphere. The literature of the last decades reported on the changing epidemiological profiles of Chagas disease, which now threats the human population in the cities. The exodus of the Latin America people to the Northern Hemisphere explains the growing concern in countries where the transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi was accidental or transferred from a mother to her offspring. Herein, we present the evidence of the possible acquisition of the T. cruzi infection by sex. The staggering demonstration of the transmission of the T. cruzi infections from males and females to naïve mates by intercourse introduces substantial changes in the surveillance of the Chagas disease. Notably, the sexual transmission of the T. cruzi introduces changes in the concepts of medical care, prevention and control; specifically, the risk for the vertical transfer of the parasite-induced kDNA mutations, underpinning the genetically driven autoimmunity, inheritance, and pathogenesis associated with multifaceted clinical manifestations of Chagas disease with high ratios of morbidity and mortality. In this regard, the endemics require much paradigm research with new approaches and innovation technologies, aiming at its control. For example, the recent knowledge anticipates useful measures for preventing the potential forthcoming pandemic Chagas parasites. A long-lasting multicenter research program is needed for creative, drug discovery for curtailment of Chagas disease. Meanwhile, the prevention shall rely on the education, information, and communication program for health.