Open Access Original Research Article

Variations in Electrolyte and Salivary Amylase (Ptyalin) Levels in HIV-Positive Subjects

P. R. C. Esegbue, G. T. Olowe, B. O. Pereye, L. O. Ogagayere

International STD Research & Reviews, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/ISRR/2018/45427

Not only has studies shown oral saliva as veritable in the maintenance of health state of the oral cavity, it has been asserted that salivary fluid composition levels may be important diagnostic tools for numerous ailments, including the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). Current study investigated the changes in Salivary Amylase (ptyalin) and selected electrolyte (Na+, K+, Cl-, HCO3- and Ca2+) levels due to HIV infection. A hundred (100) human participants; comprising of fifty (50) HIV positive subjects (Group A) and fifty non-positive individuals (control group B) were ethically sought for the study. Saliva was then obtained from each sample with electrolyte and alpha amylase (ptyalin) levels assayed. Statistical analysis was performed on obtained variables (using the one-way analysis of variance - ANOVA) to obtain differences in mean, and comparisons made between groups. Following analysis, study found a decrease in salivary alpha amylase levels amidst HIV sufferers (Group A) upon comparison with control, implicative of a decrease in alpha amylase activity in HIV+ subjects. Salivary Sodium (Na+) and Chloride ion (Cl-) levels were also seen to statistically decrease upon comparison between groups. This decrease was also occasioned by an increase in potassium (K+) and bicarbonate (HCO3-) ion levels for HIV sufferers as compared to control (HIV negative) subjects. Similar but advanced studies are recommended to ascertain if the reason for these changes can be traceable to the continued use of anti-retroviral therapy, or by the mere presence of the HIV itself. Study has therefore shown that HIV alters saliva composition, possibly by decreasing alpha amylase, Na+ and Cl- levels.

Open Access Original Research Article

Knowledge, Preventive Practices and Risk Perception of HIV Infection among Pregnant Women in a Rural Community of Igbagu, Izzi LGA, Ebonyi State Nigeria

A. F. Una, U. Madubueze, I. N. Okedo-Alex, C. Egbuji, L. U. Ogbonnaya

International STD Research & Reviews, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/ISRR/2018/45838

Aims: To determine the knowledge, risk and the risk perception predictors of HIV infection among pregnant women in a rural community in Ebonyi State, Nigeria.

Study Design:  A descriptive cross-sectional study of rural pregnant women.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted over 11 months (August 2016 – June 2017), in Igbagu community, Izzi Local Government Area of Ebonyi State Nigeria

Methodology: A total of 443 pregnant women on antenatal clinic booking visit were consecutively recruited. A semi structured questionnaire adapted from a validated WHO generic questionnaire on HIV/PMTCT  was administered by the interviewer.

Data analysis was done using SPSS for window version 22 and p-value was set at P< 0.05

Results: HIV awareness level was 68.2% among the pregnant women without promting. Less than a quarter (20.3%) reported that they were not at risk of HIV infection. About half of the pregnant womens’ spouses had been counseled for HIV while 36.1% were reported to have received the test. Only 14.2% of the pregnant women had adequate knowledge of HIV/AIDS. None of the women had ever received blood transfusion nor engaged in injection drug use. Age, occupation, educational status, having discussed HIV with someone, awareness of HIV Counseling and Testing and sex partner’s HIV test status had statistical significant association with appropriate HIV infection risk perception. Being a seamstress, above 30 years of age, having discussed HIV with someone and being aware of HIV were significant predictors of appropriate HIV infection risk perception.

Conclusion: HIV/AIDS knowledge and appropriate risk perception were low among the rural women. This emphasizes the need for strengthening and prioritizing community-wide engagement and enlightenment on transmission, prevention and treatment of HIV with increased focus on PMTCT especially in rural areas.

Open Access Original Research Article

Pattern of Condom Usage among Male and Female Youths in Nigeria from 1999 to 2008

Bamikole E. Olowo, David M. Dairo, Olajide A. Adekunle

International STD Research & Reviews, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/ISRR/2018/v7i430091

Condom usage is one of the most effective strategies for combating the spread of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). Despite increased sexual knowledge, adolescents in Nigeria are poor condom users. They are less likely than adults to consistently use condoms or other methods of protection that could reduce their chances of infection. The objective of the study was to describe the trend in the condom usage and to determine the association between demographic variables and condom usage among youths aged 15-24 years from1999-2008.

A comparative cross-sectional population based study was carried out in which a secondary data review analyses of Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS) 1999, 2003 and 2008 data were done. Statistical package of social science version 17.0 was used for determining frequencies, chi square and the p-values.

There was a significant increase in the usage of condom from 8.2% in 1999 to 9.3% in 2008 to 10.5% in 2008 among the female youths, though the percentages are still very low. There was an insignificant increase in condom usage among the male youths from 31.1% in 1999 to 38.7% in 2003 and then a decrease to 36.8% in 2008. There was significant association between the urban dwellers, 20-24 years age group, Christians, literate and single female youths and condom usage over the years while the rural dwellers, single and literate male youths experienced significant increase in condom usage over the years at p<0.05.

Condom usage by youths significantly increased over the years. However, the increase is still considered low and not enough to effectively reduce the prevalence of HIV and AIDS. Religion, marital status, age group, education and literacy are variables that influenced condom usage by young people. Campaign on the usage of condom during sexual intercourse among young people at every level of education, urban or rural residence, age group and religion should be intensified.

Open Access Minireview Article

Globalized Means for Diagnostic and Preventative Management of HIV/AIDS

Jennings Hernandez, Anjali Kumar

International STD Research & Reviews, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/ISRR/2018/45690

HIV/AIDS is one of the global health issues of great proportions. The virus has reached pandemic volumes affecting the lives of many people throughout the world. The objective of this paper is to address pertinent factors about HIV/AIDS including a history of the disease, management, and treatment modalities. Furthermore, this paper will discuss the impact this disease has made globally on public and community health throughout the years. According to the U.S Department of State (2010), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) published a Final Rule in the Federal Register to remove the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection from the list of communicable diseases of public health significance [1]. The virus has had an exponential impact on the cost of health care globally. According to the World Health Organization (2018), there were approximately 36.9 million people living with HIV at the end of 2017 with 1.8 million people becoming newly infected in 2017 globally. It is estimated that currently only 75% of people with HIV know their status. In 2017, 21.7 million people living with HIV were receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) globally. Between 2000 and 2017, new HIV infections fell by 36%, and HIV-related deaths fell by 38% with 11.4 million lives saved due to ART in the same period [2]. This achievement was the result of great efforts by national HIV programs supported by civil society and a range of development partners.

The goal is to educate the public about the signs and symptoms and risk factors associated with the disease. Long term survival is determinant on proper management and treatment modalities. However, at a global level treatment is too expensive for many. HIV/AIDS affects everyone regardless of sex, race, age, and income levels. There is a broader geographic distribution and it involves multiple transmission risk factors. Approximately 36.7 million people worldwide living with HIV/AIDS at the end of 2015. Of these, 1.8 million were children under 15 years old and roughly 2.1 million individuals worldwide became newly infected with HIV in 2015. In the United States alone, it is estimated than an average of 40,000 people are diagnosed with HIV each year. To reduce these numbers, technology has been playing a huge role in helping reduce the number of infected people, in addition to allowing for people to test themselves using your own smartphone. Additionally, adhering to proper health behaviors and preventive measures assists in decreasing the prevalence of the disease. Health assessment in health care centers, at-home diagnostic kits, and community health fairs promote awareness and early detection for those most susceptible to the virus.