Open Access Original Research Article

Seroprevalence of Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 and Associated Risk Factors among Undergraduate Female Students of Babcock University, Nigeria

Seyi Samson Enitan, John Cletus Ihongbe, John Okeleke Ochei, Adeolu Sunday Oluremi, Grace Eleojo Itodo, Stanley Osahon Usiobeigbe, Wuraola Ajisola Fagboyegun

International STD Research & Reviews, Page 1-15
DOI: 10.9734/ISRR/2020/v9i130103

Background: Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) causes genital herpes, a chronic viral infection that is sexually transmitted and often results in genital ulcer disease (GUD) worldwide.

Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) IgG and IgM antibodies and the associated risk factors among undergraduate female students of Babcock University.

Methods: After ethical approval was obtained, serum samples of 150 consenting female participants (16-35 years) were collected randomly and screened using NADALR HSV-2 IgG/IgM Rapid Antibody Test Cassette (Bulgarian Company for Biotechnology, Sofia, Bulgaria). The demographic and clinical information of the participants were also collected using a structured questionnaire. The results were statistically analyzed using the SPSS version 18.0.

Results: The outcome of the study shows that out of the 150 participants screened, 5 (3.3%) were positive for HSV-2 IgG antibody, 4 (2.7%) were positive for HSV-2 IgM; while 2 (1.3%) were positive for both HSV-2 IgG and IgM antibodies. There were no significant differences (P>0.05) in the seropositivity for HSV-2 IgG and IgM antibodies among the study participants on the basis of age distribution. With regards to clinical indication for genital herpes in relation to seropositivity of HSV-2 IgG and IgM antibodies among the study participants, none of the 7 (4.6%) who indicated vaginal itching was seropositive for either HSV-2 IgG or HSV-2 IgM or both. On the other hand, genital lesions were recorded in 0.7% HSV-2 IgG seropositive, 1.3% HSV-2 IgM seropositive and 0.7% HSV-2 both IgG and IgM seropositive. Genital ulcer was recorded among two participants who were either seropositive for HSV-2 IgG (0.7%) or HSV-2 IgM (0.7%). Only one (0.7%) participant indicated inguinal lymphadenopathy, however, the person was HSV-2 IgG/IgM seronegative. Identifiable risk factor significantly (P<0.05) associated with HSV-2 infection include: history of sexually transmitted infections, HIV positive status, and change of sex partners recently.

Conclusion: The outcome of this study shows that HSV-2 infection exists among undergraduate female students of Babcock University, Nigeria and therefore appropriate public health measures must be taken to halt the cycle of infection within the University community. Early detection of genital herpes and prompt treatment will help prevent subsequent complications such as genital ulcer disease among young female adults.

Open Access Original Research Article

Stigmatization of People Living with HIV/AIDS in Ndokwa West Local Government Area of Delta State, Nigeria

Ossaiga Patricia Uzorma, Adjene Josiah Obaghwarhievwo, Chime Helen Ego, Odigie Mike Osagie

International STD Research & Reviews, Page 16-29
DOI: 10.9734/ISRR/2020/v9i130104

Background: HIV/AIDS related stigmatization has been reported to be traced to several factors. Little or no knowledge on the illness, misapprehensions, as well as chauvinism against sufferers, to mention just a few.

Aim: In this study, the stigmatization of people living with HIV/AIDS in Ndokwa West Local Government Area (NWLGA) of Delta State, Nigeria, was investigated.

Methods: A total of 300 individuals comprising of, or related to HIV/AIDS sufferers were ethically recruited from the ten (10) communities in NWLGA using a well-structured and validated questionnaire. The data obtained from their responses were carefully analyzed and expressed in simple percentage.

Results: The results showed that about 61 (20.5%) subjects were individuals who resided in urban community and 237 (79.5%) of them in the rural settings. The results on the stigmatization against HIV/AIDS patients due to prejudice revealed that 100 (33.6%) of the respondents strongly disagreed that HIV/AIDS sufferers in the community should be disliked, while 128 (43%) of them disagree with about 50 (16.8%) agreeing and 20 (6.7%) of the respondents strongly agreeing. Furthermore, stigmatization attributable to stereotyping showed that 68 (22.8%) of the respondents strongly disagreed to that everyone infected with HIV/AIDS have high level of sexual promiscuity; were as, about 114 (38.3%) disagreed to that notion with 57 (19.1%) agreeing and 59 (19.8%) strongly agreeing to it. Moreover, HIV/AIDS stigmatization due to discrimination revealed that 66 (22.1%) of the respondents strongly disagreed on never hiring an HIV/AIDS sufferer as a worker. About 98 (32.9%) disagreed on this notion, while 106 (35.6%) of the respondents agreed and 74 (24.8%) strongly disagreeing. Respondents further added that PLWHA should not be employed in any institution or organization and that they should never rent accommodation to them.

Conclusion: Based on the results, stigmatization level of PLWHA was society and awareness dependent.

Recommendations: To cope with the associated menace of HIV/AIDS stigmatization, it is recommended that society be encouraged to evolve strategies, programs and governmental policies, geared towards enlightening and sensitizing the public on the non-transmittability of HIV/AIDS through contact with sufferers as erroneously believed.

Open Access Original Research Article

Safe Male Circumcision for HIV Prevention among Adolescents with Deafness in Uganda: Awareness, Prevalence and Implications for Policy and Programming

Gloria K. Seruwagi, Julius Paul Achibu

International STD Research & Reviews, Page 30-45
DOI: 10.9734/ISRR/2020/v9i130105

Background: Safe Male Circumcision (SMC)[1] has been widely recommended by WHO as part of a comprehensive HIV prevention strategy. However, literature pertaining to SMC amongst adolescents with a disability, and the deaf community in particular, is almost non-existent. This study sought to establish SMC prevalence, knowledge, attitude and post circumcision behaviour among adolescents with deafness in Uganda.

Methods: The study was cross-sectional, used a mixed-methods approach and recruited 447 participants. 363 questionnaires were administered to adolescents of age 15 - 24 years (192 males and 171 females) from three study sites. We assessed socio-demographic variables, circumcision status, post circumcision behaviour, attitude and knowledge levels towards SMC. Qualitative data was also collected from 84 participants (m=46, f=38) using focus group discussions and key informant interviews. Quantitative data were analysed using Stata software while qualitative was thematically analysed.

Results: A total of 60.9% male adolescents with deafness self-reported to be circumcised. Both male and female participants reported SMC information to be highly inaccessible (84%). Only 27.8% study participants knew about the partial protective effect of SMC against HIV, 51.8% were uncertain, while 26% thought that SMC provided full protection. Both male and female respondents had a positive attitude towards SMC (68.3%) and females were more knowledgeable (50.3%) about the partial preventive effect of SMC against HIV transmission and timeframe for the resumption of sexual activity compared to males (30.2%). Linkages were noted between SMC, social networks and key sociodemographic characteristics like ethnicity, religion and education level.

Conclusion: Despite a 60.9% prevalence and general positive attitude towards SMC, study findings showed limited service access and substantial knowledge gaps in SMC efficacy, also related to high-risk behaviour after circumcision. This can largely be explained by limited targeting by HIV prevention programmes among this (deaf) category of adolescents, related barriers associated with vulnerability arising from their disability (deafness) and developmental stage (adolescence). Key actors in HIV prevention efforts should demonstrate cognizance of heightened risk among vulnerable adolescent categories through more inclusive interventions to address prevailing knowledge and service gaps.


[1] This study was conducted between 2015-2016 when the commonly used term was Safe Male Circumcision (SMC) and not Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision (VMMC) as its popularly being packaged now. This manuscript has stuck to the originally used SMC acronym.

Open Access Original Research Article

Perceived Risk of Contracting HIV and AIDS among Sexually Active Unmarried Young People in Zambia

Sidney O. C. Mwaba, Anitha J. Menon, Thankian Kusanthan

International STD Research & Reviews, Page 46-57
DOI: 10.9734/ISRR/2020/v9i130106

The paper explored gender differences in factors affecting perceived risk of contracting HIV and AIDS among sexually active unmarried young people in Zambia. The data used was from the Zambia Demographic Health Survey (2013-2014), logistic regression analysis was used to identify the gender differences in perceived risk of acquiring HIV and AIDS. The study revealed that 61% of females and 64.4% of males reported low perceived risk of contracting HIV and 16.5% of females and 16.6% of males reported having a high risk of getting HIV/AIDS. Logistic regression analysis also identified wealth index, exposure to media, having had STDs in the last 12 months, consistent use of condoms with all partners and drinking alcohol as strong predictors of respondent’s likelihood of low risk perception of contracting HIV and AIDS. The analysis further indicated that females who used condoms consistently with all partners were 1.2 times more likely to report being at low risk of contracting HIV and AIDS. This suggests that interventions that seek to reduce the rate of HIV infection may need to focus on increasing risk perception among young people as a protective factor.

Open Access Original Research Article

Diagnosing Herpetic Genital Ulcers in a Resource-Limited Setting- What Works?

Vyoma Singh, Sumathi Muralidhar, Lalit Dar, Naveen Kundu, V. Ramesh

International STD Research & Reviews, Page 58-67
DOI: 10.9734/ISRR/2020/v9i130107

Aims: Globally, viral agents, especially herpes simplex virus (HSV), have overtaken the bacterial causes of genital ulcers. Very few laboratories in India, perform culture techniques and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for diagnosis of genital ulcers. This study aimed to establish the utility of existing tests, which are cheaper and need less technical expertise, when compared to newer tests such as PCR.

Study Design: This cross sectional study was carried out to determine the aetiology of genital ulcers, with emphasis on diagnosis of herpetic ulcers, using newer and more accurate methods of diagnosis and evaluating their performance by comparing against viral culture as gold standard test.

Place and Duration of the Study: The study was carried out over a period of one year in the Apex Regional Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STD) Centre at Safdarjung Hospital, New Delhi and the Department of Microbiology, AIIMS, New Delhi.

Methodology: Fifty three patients with genital ulcers were included in the study. Specimens from ulcers were taken for various tests, including Giemsa stain, ELISA for HSV-1 & 2, PCR and Viral culture for HSV.

Results: HSV was identified in 31 of 53 cases (58.5%), including 03 cases of HSV-1, and 28 cases of HSV-2. Sensitivity and specificity of PCR was 90.0% and 84.85%, respectively. Viral culture positivity was 37.7%.

Conclusion: Genital herpes is associated with an increased risk of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) acquisition, and clinical manifestations are diverse; hence a presumptive diagnosis should be confirmed by reliable laboratory tests. Nucleic acid amplification tests (NAAT) are the most sensitive methods for direct detection of HSV. The extensive validation of these tests allows for their application in routine laboratory settings with consistency and greater diagnostic accuracy. When standardised and used, PCR is a highly reproducible, rapid and labour efficient method for HSV detection.